Learning additional languages in plurilingual school settings

Autochthonous, foreign, regional and heritage languages

by Zehra Gabillon (Author)
©2022 Monographs 222 Pages


This book is intended for readers who seek information on issues related to plurilingualism and the integration of subject content teaching with additional languages such as heritage, autochthonous, regional and foreign languages that are taught in school contexts. The book provides information on recent theoretical and pedagogical paradigm shifts in applied linguistics and highlights the links between research, theory and pedagogy. It provides a comprehensive review of concepts and epistemologies related to AL pedagogies and plurilingualism. The last part of the book presents various interaction types used in AL classrooms and proposes interaction analysis as a research method and teacher education tool.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Acknowledgements
  • Preface
  • Table of Contents
  • Introduction
  • Part 1 context, theory and pedagogy
  • 1 Current AL teaching context
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Evolutions in applied linguistics
  • 1.2.1 Dynamic transformations
  • 1.2.2 Epistemological shifts in AL teaching
  • 1.2.3 Conceptualizing the AL learning context
  • 1.3 Conclusion
  • 2 Fundamental concepts in AL learning
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Fundamental concepts
  • 2.3 From monoglossic to heteroglossic bilingualism
  • 2.4 Notions related to bilingualism
  • 2.5 Conclusion
  • 3 Overview of AL learning theories
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Synopsis of earlier accounts of AL learning
  • 3.2.1 Behaviourism, contrastive analysis and nativist perspectives
  • 3.2.2 Cognitive accounts
  • 3.3 Current accounts of AL learning
  • 3.3.1 Emergentist approaches
  • 3.3.2 Sociocultural and (socio-)interactionist views
  • Sociocultural perspective in AL development
  • Interactionist perspective in AL development
  • 3.4 Current epistemological positions in AL learning
  • 3.5 Discussion and conclusion
  • 4 Current approaches to AL teaching
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Task-based language teaching
  • 4.3 Action-oriented approach
  • 4.4 Content-based instruction
  • 4.5 Conclusion
  • 5 Content and language integrated learning
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 CLIL history
  • 5.2.1 The advent of CLIL
  • 5.2.2 CLIL experimentations
  • 5.3 What is CLIL?
  • 5.3.1 Variations in CLIL practices
  • 5.4 Epistemological stance and theoretical foundations
  • 5.4.1 Sociocultural perspective
  • 5.4.2 Cognitivist views and CLIL
  • 5.5 CLIL frameworks and underlying principles
  • 5.5.1 4 Cs framework
  • 5.5.2 Language triptych
  • 5.5.3 Is CLIL an AL teaching approach?
  • 5.5.4 Is CLIL different from CBI?
  • 5.6 Discussion and conclusion
  • Part 2 linking theory to practice
  • 6 Educational context of French Polynesia
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Ecology of languages in French Polynesia
  • 6.3 AL research and teaching practices
  • 6.4 Conclusion
  • 7 Interactions in AL learning
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Interaction analysis as a teacher training tool
  • 7.3 Identification of interactional patterns
  • 7.3.1 IRF exchanges: Low learner involvement
  • 7.3.2 IRF exchanges: Average learner involvement
  • 7.3.3 Teacher-led small-group interactions
  • 7.3.4 Interactions: Learner-led group task
  • 7.3.5 Interactions with the teacher in a small group
  • 7.3.6 Interactions: The teacher as a group member
  • 7.4 Conclusion
  • 8 Tasks to promote interactional exchanges
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Socially mediated activity framework
  • 8.2.1 ZPD, mediation and collaborative interaction
  • Joint attention
  • Experiential learning and practical activities
  • Creating natural learning environments
  • The role of artefacts and gestures
  • 8.3 Conclusion
  • Conclusion
  • Glossary
  • Appendix
  • References
  • Index
  • Series Index

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Over the past 30 years, the conceptualization of language and language rights has undergone major paradigm shifts that have led to a revision of the role of language, language use and language practices in additional language (AL)1 learning. These paradigm shifts are the result of societal and ideological transformations that have been triggered by transnationalism2 and technological developments (Blommaert, 2013; Duff, 2015; Vertovec, 2009). Transnationalism has created superdiversity3 and linguistically diverse societies. Technological developments, the internet and global interconnectivity have revolutionized the way we communicate and the communication modalities we use. These complex phenomena, which have caused multiple collateral effects, have profoundly affected the ecology of languages4 worldwide and, with them, language practices at all levels. At the global level, changing societal conditions have brought the long-neglected issues of linguistic diversity and language rights to the attention of sociologists and sociolinguists, and along with them the issues of mother tongue, heritage and indigenous language rights have come to the fore.

Since the 1990s, fundamental concepts such as bilingualism, plurilingualism, language, language use and discourse have been re-examined ←17 | 18→ in light of research on second language acquisition (SLA), developmental psychology, sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics.5 Today, the way we perceive bilinguals, bilingual societies and autochthonous languages or code-switching practices, which are inseparable from bilingualism, have changed considerably. In applied linguistics, one of the fundamental paradigm shifts has been the replacement of monoglossic ideologies6 (García, 2011; García and Wei, 2014) by heteroglossic ideologies,7 which has led to the advent of pluralistic approaches8 in general education and in AL teaching.

This book is intended for readers who seek information on issues related to plurilingualism, AL teaching and the integration of subject content teaching with ALs such as heritage, autochthonous, regional and foreign languages that are taught in school contexts. It attempts to describe concepts relating to AL pedagogies and epistemologies using examples from the plurilingual linguistic landscape of French Polynesia. The book provides information on recent theoretical and pedagogical paradigm shifts in applied linguistics and aims to highlight the links between research, theory and pedagogy in AL development. Much of the existing literature on AL learning is either purely theoretical, with little or no explicit reference to pedagogical practices, or is often based on examples and guidelines taken directly from AL practices. There are very few books available that clearly explain AL theories, their underlying principles and their relationship to current AL pedagogies.9 Often the concepts expressed in these examples and guidelines are not well understood and are interpreted in a variety of ways by different individuals ←18 | 19→ based on their personal AL learning or teaching history. These different interpretations, therefore, often lead to practices (e.g., teaching and learning) that are inconsistent with the fundamental ideas underlying successful AL pedagogies.

The first part of the book addresses the main theoretical orientations and key issues in AL learning by providing an overview of (i) the social movements that have transformed language ecologies worldwide, (ii) the theoretical foundations that have influenced AL pedagogies, (iii) the ideologies underlying philosophical movements that have led to significant paradigm shifts in applied linguistics, (iv) epistemological and conceptual transformations within the foundations of AL learning and recent research and (v) current pedagogical approaches in AL teaching, with particular emphasis on the content and language integrated learning (CLIL)10 approach.

The second part of the book brings theory and practice together using examples and excerpts obtained from AL classrooms. This part situates the aforementioned epistemological transformations within the ecology of languages in French Polynesia and offers information on AL teaching practices in this plurilingual context. The “new world order”11 that has affected the global language ecology (Blommaert, 2013) has not spared the French Polynesian language ecology. Language policies in French Polynesia have been significantly affected by ideologies resulting from global changes such as ideological movements concerning the language rights of plurilingual communities (e.g., mother tongue rights), the integration of autochthonous languages into the school curriculum, the importance of AL learning, and also the evolution of pedagogical approaches in applied linguistics.

The second part also presents diverse interaction types used in AL teaching and proposes interaction analysis as a research method and teacher training tool. The interaction analysis approach described in ←19 | 20→ this book uses microgenetic12 methods and focuses on the communicative aspect of interactional exchanges and their microdevelopment (microgenesis13) during interactional sequences. The role of interactional exchanges in AL learning is explained using examples from corpora collected during CLIL and English as additional language (EAL) classes. These examples have been selected in order to provide readers with information about the variety of interaction patterns that may be encountered in AL classes. The book also presents some pedagogical tools for identifying the crucial moments (microgenetic occurrences) in these interactional exchanges and highlights the potential influence of these moments on learners’ language productions. The final section presents an activity framework called “socially mediated activity” (SMA), which was developed by the author. This activity framework is grounded in sociocultural premises and was developed through a synthesis of CLIL and EAL research findings in the French Polynesian context.


ISBN (Softcover)
Publication date
2022 (July)
Bruxelles, Berlin, Bern, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2022. 222 pp., 31 fig. b/w, 19 tables.

Biographical notes

Zehra Gabillon (Author)

Zehra Gabillon is an Associate Professor of English Studies and Applied Linguistics at the University of French Polynesia. Her research interests include interaction analysis, social representations, teaching additional languages, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), and contextualizing language teaching in plurilingual contexts.


Title: Learning additional languages in plurilingual school settings