Kulturen im Dialog VI – Culture in Dialogo VI – Cultures in Dialogue VI
Sechstes JungakademikerInnen-Forum in Südtirol – Sesto Forum per Neolaureati in Alto Adige – Sixth Forum for Young Graduates in South Tyrol
Neolaureati di diverse facoltà con l’idea di promuovere il dialogo interdisciplinare come anche quello scientifico interculturale si sono dati da fare e trattano nelle loro opere questioni internazionali ossia temi regionali.
In an aim to promote an interdisciplinary and intercultural scientific dialog young graduates of diverse disciplines have tackled the task of intensive investigation into »cultures in dialogue«. In their contributions they deal with questions about international and regional issues.
- Über das Buch
- Zitierfähigkeit des eBooks
- Vorwort (Annemarie Profanter)
- I Heterogeneous Identities and Multilingual Learning Heterogene Identitäten und mehrsprachiges Lernen Identità eterogenee e apprendimento plurilingue
- The Power of Identity: Ethnic Identity Construction and Approaches to Measure it (Marconi Costanza)
- Mehrsprachigkeit und kritisches Lernen: Neue Perspektiven durch eine Translanguaging-Pädagogik (Mayr Gisela)
- Alfabetizzazione plurilingue simultanea e consecutiva: una proposta di apprendimento interculturale (Chiara Zandonai)
- II Encounters Begegnungen Incontri
- La figura delle lavoratrici migranti nella famiglia italiana (Cioffi Stefano)
- Gelingen und Scheitern in der Kooperation (Stephens Nadine)
- Kulturelle Verflechtungen im Parzival: Inszenierung von Reichtum und Wissen als islamische Aspekte höfisch-christlicher Erzählwelten (Von Stosch Esther)
- III Territory and Borders Raum und Grenzen Territorio e Confini
- »Papers, Please«: Repräsentationen an der (Schmerz-)Grenze gewaltvoller Registrierungen (Michaela Bstieler)
- Zwischen Differenz und Harmonie: Musik als Medium des Dialogs in der österreichischen Auslandskulturpolitik (Vanessa Maria Carlone)
- Panzer am Brenner: Die Inszenierung einer Grenze (Luca Doll)
- IV Identity Identität Identità
- Identità fluide: pratiche affettive nei Translation Studies femministi e queer (Langhi Roberta)
- Nähe und Respekt zwischen den Lebewesen aller Arten (Vögele Magdalena)
Heterogeneous Identities and Multilingual Learning
Heterogene Identitäten und mehrsprachiges Lernen
Identità eterogenee e apprendimento plurilingue
Marconi Costanza, Mayr Gisela and Zandonai Chiara
In a society characterized by frequent trespasses and strong connections, the idea of homogeneous identities is no longer realistic. Individuals carry identities that are not clearly defined within one language and one culture but consist of heterogeneous landscape of cultural reference systems that interact and influence one another. The process of identity construction in this context thus becomes more complex and diversified as it is strongly influenced by a surrounding that is culturally and linguistically stratified.
Identities appear now multilingual and intercultural. So, it is the aim of the present cluster to collect and design possible new approaches to the study and development of such complex individualities from different perspectives, namely the theoretical realm of sociology and economics as well as education.
Understanding how theoretical approaches represent the concept and construction of identity is fundamental to grasp political and economic consequences of individuals’ and governments’ choices. On the other hand, from a practical point of view, in a society characterized by migration, transmigration and flight, responsible participation in lifeworld as well as cultural and political discourse and actual social action should be one of the major educational aims.
The first contribution of this cluster deals with the analysis of a specific component of the wide concept of identity, that becomes more visible than others in a context highly characterized by heterogeneity due to migration and interconnection, i.e. ethnic identity. The process of definition of an ethnic identity can ←21 | 22→determine success or failure of integration of migrants in the host society and, therefore, it has been tackled by different disciplines, such as economics. Letting go of the traditional paradigm that pictures individuals as rational and independent actors with the major aim of maximizing their benefits, economic literature becomes entangled with sociology and psychology in its attempt to incorporate identity features in economic choices. Furthermore, the chapter reports two pieces of research which focus on the ethnic component of an individual’s identity and attempt to provide an empirical definition of ethnic identity. With their respective merits and flaws, both analyses aim at contributing to the landscape of operational studies on identity, which not only observe the reality of multicultural and multilingual identities but also try to embrace and foster it on many levels.
The following two contributions focus on the multilingual aspect of identity. Through globalisation, more and more individuals are in contact with different languages and multilingualism becomes a natural state in modern societies. Therefore, new communicative competences need to be developed, with the focus on dialogue, interaction and building its own multilingual identity. The literature refers to it as gemeinsame kommunikative Kompetenz (Hernàndez, 2010), consisting of the entire language experiences and language knowledge of one individual.
A significant part of building these competences takes place at school, due to new didactic and educational approaches. The second paper explores new implementations concerns the multilingual literacy at two primary schools (Trentino Alto Adige). The research points out concepts, which the literature has not explored deeply: multilingual simultaneous literacy and multilingual consecutive literacy. Therefore, this contribution searches the characteristics of multilingual literacy (simultaneous/consecutive) and it investigates the approach taken by the schools compared to the typology of literacy (multilingual simultaneous/multilingual consecutive) and of language (transparency/opacity), highlighting the contextual multicultural correlations. The qualitative research shows teaching practices that go beyond the purely concept of bilingualism and that represent diverse possibilities to develop collective multilingual competences, starting with learning to read and write in different languages.
Multilingualism and critical global citizenship are at the core of the next contribution. Here the question is asked, how multilingual literacy can foster and promote critical global citizenship in foreign language teaching in secondary school. The qualitative research analyzes the learning processes in the field of critical cultural and intercultural reflection observed in multilingual task-based language learning modules.←22 | 23→
To this purpose task-based learning settings were designed, in which students worked with plurilingual and multimodal inputs, thanks to which they were stimulated to use more than one language during the problem-solving processes and discussions that led to the final output (the languages involved were: German, Italian, English, French and minority languages). Forms of cooperative and social learning promoted mediation on various levels between different culture and languages. This way a kaleidoscopic view of differences and similarities between the plurilingual documents was made possible. This enabled learners to analyze and compare different narratives and different perspectives, and to gain a more critical understanding of culture and the respective cultural reference systems.
The Power of Identity: Ethnic Identity Construction and Approaches to Measure it
Abstract: Migration has brought about the necessity of moving from a fixed, whole and homogeneous concept of identity to a new perception of it, a perception that includes in the picture heterogeneity and multilingualism. This contribution will present two approaches of definition and measurement of the ethnic component of identity, the one that surfaces in the case of migrant communities and perspectives of integration. Basing their contribution on the work of several economists and social scientists who have tried to develop realistic and factual definitions of identity, both strategies attempt to isolate factors determining different identity statuses and consequential possibilities of integration.
Migration is increasingly becoming one of the most outstanding and challenging features of our societies and economies. The International Organization for Migration defines international migration as “…a complex phenomenon that touches on a multiplicity of economic, social and security aspects affecting our daily lives in an increasingly interconnected world” (World Migration Report 2018).
Not only a high-priority topic in governments’ agendas and politicians’ issues, migration is gaining salience as empirical field for the analysis on new concepts of identities in modern societies. The idea of homogeneous society, in terms of culture ethnicity and race, is indeed appealing in political discourses, but it does not find any correspondence, neither in empirical situations nor in theoretical approaches. Instead, the heterogeneity of communities and ethnic groups brings forward the issue of how to define identity in such a society: how identity forms and manifests itself is a dynamic process influenced by social interactions and environment, peer pressures, national and social narratives as well as norms and values characterizing one’s reference group.
The concept of identity and its construction is of pivotal importance in understanding many aspects of life and interactions between individuals and the experience of migration and its political and economic consequences has paved the way for a wide variety of approaches to the research. A copious number of ←25 | 26→theories has been developed by psychologists, sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists and other social scientists, with the aim of understanding how identity manifests itself. As far as economics is concerned, the concept of identity formation has long remained an unexplored field: economists have always been reluctant to investigate how identity of an individual affects his or her economic choices (Constant & Zimmermann 2013).
Among all components of an individual’s identity, the ethnic component is the one that has been explored in the following pages: the ethnic component of an individual’s identity function becomes predominant as far as migration is concerned, since it is of paramount importance in determining the success or failure of migrants in the host economy and society.
2. What is Identity
Much of the research on ethnic identity refers to it as a component of social identity as it has been developed by Henri Tajfel and John C. Turner in their model of social identity formation.
They identify two extremes of social behavior, labeled respectively interpersonal and intercultural behavior: at one extreme is the interaction between individuals that is only determined by their personal features; at the other extreme we can found interaction which is fully influenced by norms and rules characterizing social groups the parties involved belong to. Pure forms of these two situations are rare to be found in real life interactions: social encounters occur usually at some point between the two extremes (Tajfel & Turner 1986).
The core unit of Tajfel’s and Turner’s Social Identity Theory (SIT) is the group: groups give their members a sense of belonging and a social identity based on shared norms and values. Consequently, individuals tend to apply a process of social categorization in their approach to social interactions: they divide the world into “us” (the in-group) and “them” (the out-group). Once having identified themselves within a group, individuals endeavor to achieve and maintain a positive social identity through comparisons with other out-groups: a favorable comparison for the in-group provides confirmation and satisfaction for one’s sense of self and identity. When social identity thus gained is unsatisfactory, individuals would then have incentives to abandon their in-group and join a more favorable one.
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- 2022 (September)
- Integration Interkulturelles Zusammenleben Migration Partizipation Interkulturalität
- Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2022. 238 S., 4 farb. Abb., 16 Tab.