Gastronomy Attractions and Practices in Tourism

by İrfan Yazicioğlu (Volume editor) Özgür Yayla (Volume editor) Alper Işın (Volume editor) Rabia Bölükbas (Volume editor)
©2023 Edited Collection 370 Pages


This book includes studies carried out with a scientific purpose in gastronomy and hospitality in tourism and aims to provide theoretical and practical contributions to both academicians and sector employees. In line with this purpose, the importance and awareness of in tourism, especially gastronomy and food, is revealed, so it is possible to associate conceptual studies with other areas of tourism. In addition, the content has been enriched with examples of hospitality applications in tourism.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • New Trend in Sustainability and Eco Gastronomy: Underground Farms
  • Gastronomy and Music
  • Good Practices for Food Waste
  • Gastronomy in the Framework of Social Representations Theory
  • The Effect of Participation in Leisure Activities on Depression Level
  • Evaluation of Gastronomic Elements in the “Zengin Mutfağı” Movie from Semiotics Perspective
  • Unionization in the Tourism Sector: The Case of Türkiye
  • Zero Waste Management in the Scope of Sustainable Tourism
  • Overview to Gluten-Free Tourist Profile in the Health Belief Model Perspective
  • Service Failures and Recovery Strategies in the Tourism Sector
  • Ayurveda and Hilts Theory in the Context of the Relationship between Gastronomy and Ancient Medicine
  • Edible İnsects
  • Raw Food Practices in Gastronomy
  • Olive Oil as a Functional Food
  • Caterıng Servıces for Mass Food Enterprıses
  • Synthetic Meat in the Context of the Global Climate Crisis
  • Influence of Central Asian Yer-Sub Gok-Kal Cults on Anatolian Gastronomy
  • Dark and Ghost Kitchens: A New Trend in the Restaurant Industry
  • Designing Bicycle Network ın Campuses: The Case of Kirklareli University
  • Organizational Theft ın Tourism Businesses
  • Urban Design as an Element Affecting the Preferences and Experiences of Tourists Participating in Urban Tourism*
  • Examining the Sustainable Tourism issues in Small Island Destinations: Case Study in Western Indian Ocean Small Islands
  • Travel Intentions of Generation X, Y, and Z Women: A Case Study of Solo Female Travelers in Turkey *
  • The Effect of Local Food Consumption Motivation Factors on the Destination Selection of Tourists
  • The Last Recreationists of Virtual Space: Digital Immigrants
  • The Concept of Organizational Ambidexterity in Tourism Businesses
  • The Effect of Hedonism in Tourism
  • Tourism and Earthquakes
  • Slum Tourism
  • New Trend in Gastronomy: Super Foods

Eren Yalcin1; Merve Oksuz2: Fatih Varol3

New Trend in Sustainability and Eco Gastronomy: Underground Farms


According to The World Bank, the world population, which was 3 billion in the 1960s and about 6 billion in the early 2000s, approached eight billion in 2021. By 2050, the world’s population is projected to rise by about two billion, and global food production will need to increase by about 70% compared to the current situation (United Nations, 2017; Jans-Singh et al., 2019; Wildeman, 2020; The World Bank, 2023).

Due to population growth, various alternatives have emerged to meet the increasing demand for food (Despommier, 2014; Al-Kodmany, 2018; Ballard, 2020). At present, one of the most significant alternatives is the underground production farms used for agricultural production (Ballard, 2020). Besides, underground agriculture is the realization of agricultural production in a farm that is located underground by providing heat, light and moisture balance. In this farm, which plays an important role in delivering fresh vegetables to the table and where no pesticides are used, 70% less water and 95% less fertilizer are used compared to traditional methods of production (Al-Kodmany, 2018).

In this section; “Sustainability”, “Gastronomy” and “Eco Gastronomy” and “Vertical Farming” and “Growing Underground” will be examined within the framework of agricultural areas located underground, different from traditional production methods.

Sustainability, Gastronomy and Eco Gastronomy


With the realization of the industrial revolution, the uncontrolled use of natural resources has led to the damage of environmental and cultural elements and the emergence of the concept of sustainability (Kasli et al., 2015). On the other hand, the negative impact of environmental pollution on human health has led consumers to prefer foods that are natural and suitable for human health. That’s why, organic and good agricultural practices have emerged within the understanding of sustainability in order to meet the needs of consumers for healthy food (İbis, 2021).

The concept of sustainability, which is one of the important issues of the 21st century, is defined as “ensuring continuity”, “sustaining existence” or “protection”, which emerged in order to ensure that people continue their lives as healthy individuals and to minimize the damage to the environment in industrial production and agricultural production (Scarpato, 2002; Durlu et al., 2013; İbis, 2021). On the other hand, sustainable food production is defined as “ensuring the continuity of the ecosystem and agriculture for future generations” (Durlu et al., 2013; Babadag & Ekincek, 2023). Ensuring sustainability will also contribute to the preservation of a destination’s identity, limited energy and all kind of natural resources (Sloan et al., 2015; Rinaldi, 2017).

Concept of Gastronomy

The concept of gastronomy, which emerged with the combination of the Greek words “gastèr” meaning stomach and “nomos” meaning law, was first expressed by Archestratus, who lived in the 4th century BC, as “good cooking”, “table pleasure” and “the art of eating and drinking well” (Csergo, 2016; Samanci, 2020).

In the 18th century, Brillat-Savarin, in his book “Physiologie du Goût”, defined gastronomy as “the mental knowledge of everything that is related to human nutrition”. According to Brillat-Savarin, the aim of gastronomy is “to recommend the most superior, possible form of nutrition necessary for man and to take care of its preservation” (Scarpato, 2002; Brillat-Savarin, 2014; Samanci, 2020).

The concept of gastronomy, according to the Larousse Gastronomique definition, is defined as “the curiosity to eat food well; a healthy, well-organized, pleasant and delicious kitchen, food order and system” (Larousse Gastronomique, 2005). In other words, “the art and knowledge of preparing and eating good food” (Cambridge Dictionary, 2023); Scarpato (2000) “the preparation, production and presentation of food, as well as the maintenance of cooking and eating characteristics with excellence”; According to Sariisik and Ozbay (2015), it is possible to define it as “a branch of art and science related to food preparation, cooking, presentation and eating and drinking experience, which is a reflection of certain cultures”. According to UNWTO (2017), gastronomy is a strategic element in the promotion of any destination (Lochman, 2021); According to the Turkish Language Association, “curiosity to eat well” is defined as “a well-organized, pleasant and delicious kitchen, food order and system that is suitable for health” (Turkish Language Society, 2023).

Eco Gastronomy

The concept of eco-gastronomy explains the relationship of agriculture and food with social, cultural and psychological elements from the table to the field. In other words, it contributes to ensuring socio-cultural and environmental sustainability. When the literature is checked, it is possible to see that eco gastronomy is also defined as sustainable gastronomy. From this point of view, it will be possible to say that it emerged as an expression of an environmentally friendly understanding (Scarpato, 2002; Yurtseven & Kaya, 2011). Eco gastronomy provides added value to the uniqueness of the destination by expanding and developing the area of local tourism resources. In addition to strengthening the local economy in terms of tourism and agriculture sectors, it is also stated that it will make a significant contribution to sustainable development with an environmentally friendly infrastructure (Nummedal & Hall, 2006; Pratt, 2007; Barrera & Alvarado, 2008).

Eco gastronomy is associated not only with the production and sale of agricultural production and local food but also with the social, cultural and political elements involved in the process (Scarpato, 2002). In the implementation phase of the eco gastronomy concept, the main challenges are the provision of high quality products, limited supply area and accessibility (Björklund, 2016).

The concept of eco gastronomy basically covers the following issues (Scarpato, 2002). These are;

Transferring local culinary knowledge to future generations,

Increasing welfare by providing added value to gastronomy activities.

Provision of local food production

Supporting the production of local people

Providing visitors with local and authentic experiences

Provide job opportunities to people in the region by supporting local production (Yurtseven & Kaya, 2010).

Vertical Farming and Growing Underground

Vertical Farming

In addition to the decrease in arable land due to climate change, increasing population, urbanization and decreasing water resources have led to a decrease in arable land per capita (Benke & Tomkins, 2017). The world economy was negatively affected by this situation (Kalantari et al., 2017). Solutions for improving food production, increasing yields from land and the use of technology are exemplified by vertical farming. Vertical farming aims to reduce the ecological footprint by increasing productivity (Benke & Tomkins, 2017).

Vertical farming practices is a system in which healthy food is produced efficiently and sustainably in a controlled environment, water and energy is saved and production is carried out without being under the influence of pesticides and adverse environmental conditions (The United Nations, 2017). In other words, it is a technology in which food is grown indoors, without soil and under artificial lighting (Steiner, 2022).

In vertical farms, production is realized without the need for soil through artificial lighting. Other green herbs, especially lettuce, can be grown using less water than in conventional agriculture (Steiner, 2022). In this production method, the plants are placed in layers, one on top of the other systems is used to feed the plants. These are divided into three as hydroponics, aeroponics and aquaponics (Birkby, 2016).

Hydroponic System

Commonly used on vertical farms, this system involves growing plants in soil-free nutrient solutions. Plant roots are periodically immersed in the nutrient solution to ensure that the correct chemical composition is maintained (Birkby, 2016).

Aeroponics System

This system has the highest productivity in vertical farming applications and plants receive more minerals than other systems. It uses 90% less water than hydroponics (Birkby, 2016).

Aquaponic System

Aquaponic system is a production method in which plants and fish are in the same production pond. Fish raised in closed ponds use plants grown in vertical farms as a food source. Contributes to the nutrition of plants by producing wastes with rich content (Birkby, 2016).

In Table 1.1, the main benefits of vertical farming practices such as hydroponics, aeroponics and aquaponics are presented. For the hydroponic system, it is stated that the plant is encouraged to grow fast, the aeroponic system requires less water and the aquaponic system uses fish for fertilizer (Al-Kodmany, 2018).

Table 1.1: High-Tech Indoor Farming (Al-Kodmany (2018)’den alınmıştır)

Farming Method

Key Characteristics

Major Benefits



Water is used in the growing medium.

The plant grows quickly.

The use of pesticides or fertilizers is reduced.


The roots of the plants are fed with the nutrient solution.

Requires less water.


It is integrated with fish farming.

Rich waste from fish tanks is used.

Common/Applicable Technologies

Monitoring and control systems, automatic lighting, led lighting system, renewable energy systems, climate controls.

Table 1.2 shows the advantages and disadvantages of vertical farming. Although continuity of production, environmental friendliness and water saving are advantages, high energy use and limited variety of crops are disadvantages.

Table 1.2: Advantages and Disadvantages of Vertical Farming (Birkby, 2016)



Continuous crop production

Land and building costs

Elimination of herbicides and pesticides

Energy use

Protection from weather-related variations in crop production

Controversy over USDA organic certification

Water conservation and recycling

Limited number of rop species

Climate friendly

Pollination needs

People friendly

Table 1.3 shows the vertical farming areas and regions, including AeroFarms in New Jersey, CropBox in North Carolina and Farmbox Greens in Washington.

Table 1.3: Vertical Farming Production Companies and Regions (taken from Birkby, 2016).

Vertical Farming Production



New Jersey


North Carolina

Farmbox Greens




Freight Farms


Green Spirit Farms


Greener Roots Farm




Local Garden

Vancouver British Columbia (Canada)



The Plant


Urban Produce


Uriah’s Urban Farms


Vertical Harvest


Growing Underground

Urbanization and agriculture are interrelated (Manikas et al., 2020). Underground agriculture is defined as the cultivation of plants in man-made underground spaces (tunnels, mines, bunkers, etc.). These underground spaces can also be used as safe storage areas (Langefeld & Tegtmeier, 2019). The agricultural production method called “Growing Underground”, in which the vertical farming system is realized under London, is the production of food with the hydroponic system in the bunker abandoned in the 1960s. In this underground vertical farming system, peas, basil, cilantro, parsley, arugula, pink radish and mustard plants are grown. This shelter, consisting of two parallel tunnels, has a production area of approximately 550 m2. Temperature and humidity control is kept within ideal limits for production in this area (Jans-Singh et al., 2019).


ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2023 (December)
Cultural Heritage Gastronomy Hotel Management Marketing Recreation Tourism Industry
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2023. 370 pp.

Biographical notes

İrfan Yazicioğlu (Volume editor) Özgür Yayla (Volume editor) Alper Işın (Volume editor) Rabia Bölükbas (Volume editor)

İrfan Yazıcıoğlu, is working as an academician at the Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts at Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University, Turkey. His research interests include tourism, gastronomy, hospitality and tourism industry. Alper Işın, PhD., is working as an academician at the Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts at Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University, Turkey. His research interests include tourism, gastronomy, food & beverage management and destination marketing. Özgür Yayla is currently an associate professor in the Faculty of Tourism, Manavgat at Akdeniz University, Turkey. He received his Master’s degree in tourism management and PhD degree in recreation management from Gazi University. His primary research interests involve recreational activities, service quality, tourist behaviour, destination marketing and the interaction between residents and tourists in destinations.


Title: Gastronomy Attractions and Practices in Tourism