Linguistic Encoding & Decoding in Global Contexts

Selected Papers of the 54th Linguistics Colloquium in Moscow 2019

by Ksenia Kardanova-Biryukova (Volume editor) Olga Suleimanova (Volume editor)
©2024 Conference proceedings 280 Pages
Series: Linguistik International, Volume 46


The Book of Proceedings features a selection of papers presented at the 54th Linguistics Colloquium: “Linguistic Encoding / Decoding in Global Contexts,” held from September 19th-22nd, 2019, at the Institute of Foreign Languages, Moscow City University (Moscow, Russia). The volume includes 23 papers covering a range of linguistic topics, including cognitive semantics, historical linguistics, stylistics, pragmatics, translation studies, and communication studies.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the author
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Contents
  • Authors
  • Introduction
  • Communicative Dynamism of Secondary Predication in Terms of Translation
  • Mnemonics as a Tool for Cognitive Architecture
  • Image of SPEAKING Person
  • Participle Translation from English into Russian (Based on “A week in December” by S. Faulks)
  • Linguistic Encoding and Decoding in Workplace Interactions between Refugees and German Instructors
  • Semantic and Diachronic Analysis of Relations
  • US Media Reporting on War Conflicts in terms of Translation
  • The Changing Importance of Analogy Some Remarks about Analogy in Word Formation
  • Internet-mediated Communication as Recursive Interaction
  • Russian uže: Adverb, Particle or Discourse Marker?
  • Das Merkmal «Potentialität» in der Semantik von Substantiven der lexikalisch-semantischen Gruppe Kraft/Stärke/Macht in der deutschen Gegenwartssprache
  • Affective Factors and Achievement in the Speaking Skill of Monolingual and Bilingual Learners of English as a Foreign Language
  • Visual Perception Quality in the English Language
  • The Role of Proper Reading/Writing Skills Formation in Understanding Text Message
  • Development of Semantic Structure of the Verbs Denoting Physical Manifestations of Oscillatory Movements
  • Irregular Word Order in Phraseologized Verbal Predicates in Cognitive Perspective
  • Why Should We Study Non-native Varieties of English?
  • Cognitive Metonymy in Causative Constructions of Slogan
  • Cognitive Status of “Quasi Subject” Structures of the Type The book reads easily
  • Technological Aspects in Teaching Linguistics
  • Verbal and Non-Verbal Encoding of Autobiographical Memory in Computer-Mediated Communication
  • Zur syntaktischen Synonymie im Deutschen: Wie man dasselbe verschieden kodieren kann
  • Onomatopoeia in Ginga Tetsudo no Yoru by Kenji Miyazawa: A Comparative Study of Russian and Chinese Translations


The Book of Proceedings features a selection of papers presented at the 54th Linguistics Colloquium: Linguistic Encoding / Decoding in Global Contexts held on September 19th–22nd, 2019 at the Institute of Foreign Languages with Moscow City University (Moscow, Russia).

The Linguistics Colloquium was founded in Hamburg, Germany, in 1966 and since then has been held annually in a total of 18 European countries. It serves as a forum which brings together researchers in a variety of topic areas within the scope of linguistic research. The Linguistics Colloquium is open to novel approaches in linguistics and aims to facilitate fruitful discussion and exchange of ideas. It serves as a platform for both established and inexperienced researchers helping them to voice their ideas on various linguistic problems ranging between comparative studies, historical linguistics, semantics and sociolinguistics.

The Institute of Foreign Languages with Moscow City University (Moscow, Russia) was privileged to host the 54th Linguistics Colloquium. The 54th Linguistics Colloquium covered a broad range of topics relating to Linguistic Encoding / Decoding in Global Contexts, including such topical areas as cognitive linguistics; cultural linguistics; semantics; morphology; sociolinguistics; pragmatics; typology; comparative studies; contact linguistics; translation practices.

The 54th Linguistics Colloquium involved over 60 academics and researchers from 12 countries: Germany, Austria, Poland, Croatia, the Netherlands, Japan, Tunisia, Switzerland, Slovenia, Turkey, France and Russia, with three parallel sections continuously working over three days, four stimulating plenary talks and engaging discussions to follow. Besides, 33 young researchers enjoyed a chance to present the findings of their research at the Colloquium.

The chair of linguistics and translation studies would like to say thank you to the International Linguistics Colloquium board for giving us this chance. Over 15 people were involved in organizing the 54th Linguistics Colloquium: Linguistic Encoding / Decoding in Global Contexts. And help and effort of each and every one of them was invaluable.

We do hope that the Colloquium speakers enjoyed the plenary talks, all the papers presented and the discussions that followed. We do also hope that the participants enjoyed the cultural and entertainment programme that was on offer despite the bleak, rainy and chilly autumn days in Moscow.

The Book of Proceedings features 23 papers covering an array of linguistic problems, including cognitive semantics, historical linguistics, stylistics, pragmatics, translation studies and communication studies.

Ksenia S. Kardanova-Biryukova and Olga A. Suleimanova

Natalia Beklemesheva

Moscow City University (Moscow, Russia)


Proletarskiy prospect, 16-3-164, Moscow, Russia, 115477

Communicative Dynamism of Secondary Predication in Terms of Translation

Abstract: The paper deals with predication and studies the forms it takes in the natural language from Functional sentence perspective. The trend of economizing language means aimed at enhancing the information density of a sentence without making it overloaded syntax-wise makes secondary predication increasingly common. Secondary predicative structures including non-finite verbs and constructions, compound attributes and deverbal nouns are analyzed in terms of degree of their communicative dynamism to find out whether there is a link between the type of secondary predication and significance of this information in the communicative hierarchy of the sentence. The findings show such a dependence in the synthetic Russian language, while the analytical English language assigns priority to more economical ways of information “packaging”.

Keywords: Functional sentence perspectivecommunicative dynamismsecondary predicationthe synthetic Russian languagethe analytical English language.

1 Introduction

The phenomenon of predication has always aroused a lot of interest in linguistics. Much attention has been given so far to the verbal form of predication in a sentence, namely primary and secondary predicative structures.

Speaking in general terms, predication is seen as a quality / property / relation designated by the speaker as regards an object or individual (in a wider sense), in other words, something which is affirmed or denied of the subject of speech. This quality can be described in a plenty of different ways as it reflects how precisely the speaker correlates it with the situation of speech: the focus can be made on time, modality (possible /impossible, obligatory, necessary, desirable, planned, certain, permissible action or process, etc.) and subject-verb agreement details (person / number). These details are in charge of the degree of explicitness with which predication is fleshed out in a text. Actually, any situation (a quality / property assigned to an object) can be described in a rather economical way, with minimum language means employed, e.g.: I turned and saw how she was being walked toward the door of an interrogation room. (M. Connelly. The Fifth Witness) vs I turned to see her being walked toward the door of an interrogation room. Or: She looked like a deer caught up in the lights of the traffic. (ibid) vs She had the classic deer-in-the-lights look in her eyes.

This phenomenon is described in linguistics as reduced (secondary) predication (Beklemesheva 2011). In other words, some or all grammatical categories of predication are not necessarily explicitly exhibited being easily derived from the context as they coincide with the grammatical form of the full-sized matrix predicate they always go together with.

The forms of reduced predication in the natural language are diverse and plentiful, including semi-predicative structures, structures of condensed predication and latent predication found only in analytical languages (English) (Souleimanova 2009). Overall, secondary predication appears to be an effective tool of increasing the informative “density” of speech as it helps pack more information into a sentence without making it overloaded syntax-wise.

Semi-predicative structures involve participle and infinitive constructions and verbal adverbial constructions (Russian deeprichastiya) retaining some of the predicative grammatical characteristics, at least temporal, sometimes modal ones. Cf.:

I could see it coming; She nested against his shoulder, like a bird seeking refuge; [action is simultaneous with the matrix predicate]; Yellowed with age [this action is prior to the principal one], this scrap of paper turned out to contain [simultaneous] nothing more remarkable than Lawrence’s scribbled note to the butler…

(J. Coe. What a Carve Up!)

Given these features, semi-predicative structures are defined in traditional grammar as non-finite predicates unlike finite ones with all the grammatical characteristics in place.

Condensed predicative structures describe the situation in a more abstract way, largely due to semantic affinity with the finite verb of the matrix sentence. They are: deverbal nouns: проведение мероприятия vs мероприятие будет / было проведено; an adorable continuation of that trend vs the trend was continued / will be continued; and English compound attributes: wheelchair-bound person vs a person who is bound to the wheelchair; cf. also: ill-gotten affluence; well-built man; ill-fitting suit.

Latent predication occurs in structures with adverbial particles, indicating the direction of movement while the predicate of movement itself is omitted (as its meaning is obvious from the context), e.g.: I whistled and signaled him back to the car vs signaled that he should go back to the car; He waved me into silence with an imperious hand vs waved his hand to signal I should keep silent (R. Harris. The Ghost); I want them out vs I want them to go out; adjectives in the comparative degree indicating the outcome of some changes (with an action or a process implied): better standards – the standards have become better as something was improved. Another type of latent predication is omission of a predicate of action / process with the focus made on the result of this action / process, cf.: conducting nuclear tests is prohibited vs nuclear tests are prohibited.

This evidence brings up a question: as the same situation can be described with different predicative structures, what determines the speaker’s choice? When is it more appropriate to use he came to see instead of he came and saw? With summer approaching he decided on the countryside vs Summer was approaching and he decided to go to the countryside; she waved him forward vs she waved to encourage him to move forward?

There is a sense that the answer can be found with the help of functional sentence analysis. The communicative significance of secondary predicative structures has not been paid enough attention to so far. Though syntactically secondary predicative structures are dependent (as they are used only in combination with full-sized matrix predicates), content-wise they make independent efficiently packed units of information, which might be more or less significant (rhematic or thematic in terms of the Functional sentence perspective approach – FSP). At the same time, it can be assumed that in the languages of different types (analytical vs synthetic) there are different correlations between the “size” of predication in the structure (explicitness of its grammatical characteristics) and the communicative significance of the predicative structure.


ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2024 (June)
translation studies communication studies foreign language teaching cognitive semantics historical linguistics stylistics pragmatics
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2024. 280 pp., 9 fig. b/w, 21 tables

Biographical notes

Ksenia Kardanova-Biryukova (Volume editor) Olga Suleimanova (Volume editor)

Ksenia Kardanova-Biryukova is the Head of the Chair of Linguistics and Translation Studies at Moscow City University (MCU). She holds a PhD in Linguistics and is involved in various research projects both inside and outside the country. Her research interests include Psycholinguistics, Sociolinguistics and Translation Studies, as well as Research Methodology and Big Data Analysis. Olga Suleimanova is a Professor of Linguistics at the Chair of Linguistics and Translation Studies, Moscow City University (MCU). Her research interests lie in the fields of Cognitive Semantics and Translation; Urban Discourse analysis and Urban Toponymy also capture her attention.


Title: Linguistic Encoding & Decoding in Global Contexts