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The Wine Goblet of Ḥāfeẓ

A Comparative Study of the Influence of Ḥāfeẓ on the Fifteenth-Century Classical Persian Poet Jāmī

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Bahman Solati

In this innovative book, Bahman Solati presents a comparative study of Ḥāfeẓ, an internationally renowned poet in the West, particularly in Germany, France, and the Anglophone world for the past 250 years, and his influence on the fifteenth-century classical Persian poet Jāmī.

Having played a key role on the stage of world literature and poetry, present available studies in the West suffer from a dearth of good research works on Ḥāfeẓ. This text aims to fill this gap, including coverage of commentaries, critical studies, and compilations of Ḥāfeẓ’s Divān, juxtaposing them with works and poetry of Jāmī to evaluate the influence of Ḥāfeẓ on this fifteenth-century mystic and poet. Comprehensive notes and an extensive bibliography are added bonuses of the book.

Devotees of Persian literature and those of Persian-speaking countries (Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan) will find this text of particular interest, as will academics interested in Persian poetry and literature. The usefulness of this research alone for students and scholars alike is of itself enough to make this book worth adding to any library.

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Chapter 2: Terms and Phrases Employed in Ḥāfeẓ’s Poetry

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Ḥāfeẓ’s Poetic Style

Ḥāfeẓ’s style results from both his poetic persona and from other factors we will consider later.1 In order to assess Ḥāfeẓ’s personal contribution to the development of the ghazal, however, we must take into account his debt to his predecessors—and even to his contemporaries who cultivated the same genre. An accurate assessment of his originality can only be attempted when all possible influences on his work have been examined.2 The genius of Ḥāfeẓ’s lyrics becomes obvious to readers familiar with the Qurʼān. In juxtaposing his ghazals with the Qurʼānic verses we can observe the exquisite work of a master poet steeped in the holy book. In this regard Khurramshāhī asserts that through his whole life, Ḥāfeẓ was immersed in the holy Qurʼān and that almost sixty of his seventy years were spent learning Qurʼānic verses.3 The examples below, each of a Qurʼānic verse followed by echoes in Ḥāfeẓ, are merely a few of the hundreds of such allusions that can be found in his poetry.

All together, hold fast to the cords of Allāh … ← 29 | 30 →

According to Nūrbakhsh, tresses in mystical poetry allude to the identity of Allāh, to which no one has access.5 Taking inspiration from this verse, Ḥāfeẓ crafts ghazals extoling the obedience and love of the created for the creator.

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