Evolutions and Revolutions
6. Becoming Electric Evolution and Revolution in Electrographic and Electrophonic Communication 193 7. Becoming Cybernetic Evolution and Revolution in Digital Communication 255 8. Becoming Critical Thinkers About Evolutions and Revolutions in Human Communication 297 Notes 329 Bibliography 351 Index 365 viii contents Like all authors, I am indebted to a long list of thinkers, writers, teachers, and colleagues who have helped me to think critically about the history of human communication. Most of my intellectual debts are noted in the specific refer- ences found in this book, but here I wish to pay special attention to some peo- ple most directly responsible for the conception and execution of this book. Although we never met in person, I have read most of the works of Jacques Ellul published in English, and for some years prior to his death in 1994 we car- ried on a charming correspondence via old fashioned air mail. Among authors I read and met are Joseph Campbell, Edmund Carpenter, Eric Havelock, Marshall McLuhan, and Lewis Mumford. All helped me to think more criti- cally about communication, media, and change. While a student at New York University, I had the good fortune to study with three pioneers of modern media study—Charles Siepmann, George Gordon, and Neil Postman. Neil was my teacher, my advisor, and my mentor. Later, we became col- leagues and friends. Neil and I shared an office, ideas, and some key friends— chiefly Charles Weingartner and Christine Nystrom. Together, Neil and I, aided by Charlie’s...
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