Theoretical and Practical Perspectives
Chapter Two: The International Marketing Mix
C H A P T E R T wO The International Marketing Mix The primary focus of this text is international advertising. However, because an advertising campaign is part of an overall marketing strategy and must be coordinated with other marketing activities, the role of the other marketing mix elements will be reviewed. Companies operating in one or more foreign markets must decide whether to adapt their marketing mix to local conditions, and if so, to what degree. The concept of a marketing mix, popularized by Jerome McCarthy, includes the following four P’s: Product: includes a product’s design and development, as well as branding and packaging; Place (or distribution): includes the channels used in moving the product from manufacturer to consumer; Price: includes the price at which the product or service is offered for sale and establishes the level of proﬁtability; Promotion: includes advertising, personal selling, sales promotions, direct marketing, and publicity. Broadly deﬁned, it also includes sponsorships, product integration, and even trade fairs. (McCarthy 1960) GloBalizatioN versUs localizatioN oF tHe MarketiNG Mix experts disagree over the degree to which ﬁrms should globalize, or standardize, their marketing programs across markets. At one extreme are companies that support the use of a fully standardized approach. Marshall Mcluhan coined the term “global village” to describe an emerging world tightly linked through telecommunications. Many marketers believe that these advances in telecommunica- tions, along with cheaper air transportation and the resulting increase in international travel, have created increasingly international consumers, making the...
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