Theoretical and Practical Perspectives
Chapter Four: The Cultural Environment
C H A P T E R F O U R The Cultural Environment The ﬁnal aspect of the marketing and advertising environment that the international marketer must consider is the culture of a particular country. Marketers have traditionally examined a potential market’s demographic and geographic characteristics, as well as economic and political factors, in order to determine if and how they might impact the marketing mix. However, only in recent years has greater attention been paid to the cultural environment. each country exhibits cultural differences that inﬂuence consumers’ needs and wants, their methods of satisfying them, and the messages they are most likely to respond to. The international business literature reveals hundreds of blunders that have resulted from miscalculating—or simply ignoring—the cultural environment. This chapter explores the concept of culture and its various elements, and discusses tools potentially useful to international marketers attempting to analyze foreign cultures and penetrate foreign markets. coNcePt oF cUltUre Culture can be conceptualized in many ways. Indeed, in the early 1950s, Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952) identiﬁed well over 160 different deﬁnitions of culture in the anthropological literature. of course, many new deﬁnitions have appeared since. A classic deﬁnition is provided by e. B. Taylor, who deﬁned culture as “a complex whole, which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by individuals as members of a society” (Taylor 1871, 1). Adamson Hoebel referred to culture as the “integrated sum total...
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
This site requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals.
Do you have any questions? Contact us.Or login to access all content.