The leading markets for this book will be major public and Division 1 research university libraries and university courses in education policy, education law, education history, political science, and public policy.
4 Federal Education Policy Conflicts over Standards-based Education during the Bush and Clinton Year (1988–2000)
· 4 · federal education policy conflicts over standards- based education during the bush and clinton years (1988–2000) How did standards- based education as we recognize it today come to be such an accepted and integral part of federal education policy, and what obsta- cles had to be overcome for this to occur? In this chapter, I will look at the role specific corporate leaders, governors, teacher union leaders, and others played in shepherding bills like America 2000 (Bush, 1990, 1991; Chira, 1992; Kolb, 1998; Miller, 1991a,b,c,d; Miller, 1992a, b, c, d; National Council on Education Standards and Testing, 1993; Stedman, 1991; Stedman and Riddle, 1992; Tirozzi, 1991; United States Congress, 1991a; United States Department of Education 1991; Winfield and Woodward, 1992) and Goals 2000 (A Goals 2000; Berlak, 1995; Clinton, 1993; Purpel, 1995; United States Congress, 1994a,b; United States Department of Education, 2005) through the legislative process, as well as the social and political contexts of this effort (Diegenmueller, 1995; Firestone, 1997; Jennings, 1998; Kosar, 2005; Resnick and Nolan, 1995; Standards: Struggling, 1995; Starr, 1998; Stoskopf, 2000; Thompson, 1999; Vinovskis, 1999a, b). In this chapter, I will also examine the “standards wars.” These controversies erupted after the initial promulgation of voluntary model national standards, especially in history (Cheney, 1994; Johnson and Diegenmueller, 1995; Morrison, 1996), language arts (International Reading Association, 1999; National Committee 60 a policy history of standards-based education in america for Teaching English and International Reading Association, 1996), and mathematics. Paradoxically, at its moment...
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