Effective Instructional Approaches
Edited By Lydiah Nganga, John Kambutu and William B. Russell III
Chapter One: Globalization: History, Consequences and What to Do with It: John Kambutu
Globalization is an old phenomenon. However, the impact of contemporary globalization efforts is generally misunderstood due to positionality. While people in positions of benefit tend to have favorable perceptions, the disadvantaged are likely to question the value of globalization. Thus, to fully understand globalization, this chapter recommends a holistic analysis from a critical theoretical framework. In addition, a call is made for an education for social justice.
Globalization has had an impact on everyone in some way. Nevertheless, its history and consequences are somehow murky. Because globalization has different effects, people use various lenses and metaphors to understand it. For example, groups that benefit the most might use favorable metaphors such as the “global village, the Network of interdependence, the McWorld and the Spaceship earth.” But the disadvantaged might make meaning through critical schemas such as “military competition, and Neo-colonialism” (Sleeter, 2003, pp. 3–4). So, while positionality shapes understanding, it also socializes individuals into a particular kind of thinking, feeling and acting (Kambutu, Rios & Castañeda, 2009). Therefore, to understand the effects of globalization, a holistic and objective analysis is essential.
The origin of globalization is a contested issue. While some scholars see it as a new phenomenon, others think globalization is as old as humanity (Wiarda, 2007). In support of the evolutionary nature of globalization, Held, McGrew, Goldblatt and Perraton (1999) provided the following four phases of development: a) pre-modern, 900 to 1000; b) early modern, 1500 to 1850;...
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