Creativity and the Promise of Openness
Chapter Thirteen: Manifesto for Education in the Age of Cognitive Capitalism: Freedom, Creativity and Culture
Transform the world, said Marx, change life, said Rimbaud. These two watchwords for us one only.
The social revolution of the nineteenth century cannot derive its poetry from the past, but only from the future. It cannot begin with itself, before it has shed all superstitious belief in the past. Earlier revolutions needed to remember previous moments in world history in order to numb themselves with regard to their own content. The revolution of the nineteenth century must let the dead bury the dead in order to arrive at its own content. There, the phrase exceeded the content. Here the content exceeds the phrase.
—Karl Marx, The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte
In the Manifeste du Surréalisme, Breton defines Surrealism as ‘pure psychic automatism with which one proposes to express, either orally or in any other manner, the real process of thought, in the absence of any control exercised by reason, outside any aesthetic or moral concerns’.1 Surrealist poetics revalues and reconsiders the irrational element in human creativity and the will to express itself through art at a subconscious level. Freud, Marx and Rimbaud are the guiding lights for Breton as he derives a form of (‘fleeting’) modernity after Baudelaire that is truly revolutionary and which is based upon total freedom of expression that goes beyond (bourgeois) reality to uncover the super real. In this revolutionary overthrow Breton and his surrealist compatriots utilize all the aspects of the unthought...
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