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MARY J. BRESNAHAN,Michigan State University& JIE ZHUANG,Michigan State University
Goffman (1963) presented a conceptual guidebook for understanding stigma, but offered no plan for studying stigma systematically. Measuring stigma has continued to be elusive because stigmatizers often cloak stigma in self-report and experimental research (Earnshaw & Chaudoir, 2009). It is relatively easy to document the experience of recipients of stigma but more difficult to get stigmatizers to reveal their stigma. Smith (2007) explained that “stigma communication is the messages spread through communities to teach their members to recognize the disgraced and to react accordingly” (p. 464). The goal of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing stigma theories and measures.
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