Issues of Access, Diversity, Social Justice, and Community Leadership
In contrast to the traditional Ph.D., the Ed.D. typically attracts educational practitioners within school boards, government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as standalone or internationally linked community associations. The greatest attraction of the Ed.D. is an assessment strategy that encourages graduate students to incorporate their own cultural and professional contexts into a capstone project instead of producing a classic dissertation.
This book features inclusive language, highlights everyday expressions from minoritized cultures, and clarifies new concepts to accommodate new scholars and English Language Learners. Readers will discover representative research on Ed.D. policy and practice from the United States, Canada, and a sprinkling of other countries. Renowned and emergent researchers represent multiple roles within the Ed.D. education process. Individual chapters contrast historical and contemporary issues, and raise awareness about many complexities and strategies that make the Ed.D. an ideal engine of professional empowerment and social justice leadership.
Chapter Nine: Perspectives from Morgan State, a Historically Black University: Rethinking Ed.D. and Ph.D. Education Programs
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The first Ed.D.s were awarded in the United States in the 1920s and early 1930s (Brown, 1990; Clifford & Guthrie, 1988) and in the UK in 1992 (Gregory, 1995). The introduction of the Ed.D. in both of these countries must be viewed in the context of the fact that the Ph.D., as the recognized terminal degree, had been established some 60 years earlier in the case of the United States and about 72 years earlier in the case of the UK (Gregory, 1995). Indeed, even in education, the Ph.D. had long preceded the Ed.D., Teachers College having awarded the first Ph.D. in education in 1893.
For the most part, however, these early Ph.D.s were awarded in the arts and sciences and represented the acme of scholastic achievement for the recipients and the ultimate evidence of credibility for the institution. By the early twentieth century, when Ed.D.s began to be offered in education, more than 50 U.S. universities were already offering the Ph.D., the raison d’être of which was the generation of new knowledge through original research. It is not surprising, then, that as institutions began to develop terminal degrees in the professional fields, many of them (medicine, law, and business are exceptions) sought to gain prestige and legitimacy in higher education by modeling themselves on established disciplines and offering the Ph.D. as the terminal degree (Toma, 2002). Even so, there was strong opposition to the offering of doctorates in these professional fields based on the argument that...
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