The leading markets for this book will be major public and Division 1 research university libraries and university courses in education policy, education law, education history, political science, and public policy.
Chapter 1. Introduction
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I would contend that the three main stages of the American economy have created three main different types of educational policy: 1) common schools of the agrarian period (from the colonial period to the late 19th century), 2) compulsory mass schooling and the rise of graduate schools of education during industrialization (from the late 19th century to the late 20th century), and 3) the family of reform models first called “systematic reform” and “school restructuring” in the 1980s and later consolidated under the broad rubric of “accountability” during the post-industrial phase over the last few decades (Emery, 2002).
Standards-based education is a central part of this complex of closely related reform ideas generally referred to as accountability. Building on Apple (2006) these include 1) raising the standards (first in the everyday sense of the term, later as explicit written guidelines in each subject matter and grade or grade spans), 2) testing frequently, and 3) raising the stakes in terms of rewards or sanctions for students, teachers, principals, schools, districts, and states based largely on those test results.
Since the seminal 1983 A Nation at Risk study marked the beginning of a major shift in the values debate in educational policy away from equity and equality towards efficiency and excellence, numerous educational reform ← 1 | 2 →concepts have come and gone. In this book, I hope to demonstrate that the one that may have had the biggest impact over the longest period since then has been standards-based education....
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