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International Perspectives on Higher Education Admission Policy

A Reader

Series:

Edited By Virginia Stead

The promise of this admission policy reader arises from the embodiment of research from 58 authors, six continents, 20 time zones, 20+ first languages, and a broad array of research methodologies. Four sections aggregate key themes within the text:
(1) National Perspectives on Higher Education Admission Policy;
(2) Theoretical Approaches to Higher Education Admission Policy;
(3) Applicant Recruitment and Student Support Services in Higher Education; and
(4) Diversity and Equity in Higher Education Admission Policy Implementation.
This book's global chorus of professional experience, investigation, and insight is unprecedented in its breadth and depth, illuminating a rare swath of challenges and opportunities that Internet-sourced international higher education makes visible. Although each chapter is an independent research report, together they generate a new landscape for admission policy orientation, exploration, and activism. The sheer range of policies and organizational infrastructure will alert all readers to many complexities within the admissions process that remain invisible within single or multiple but similar cultural and political contexts.
Many of these authors have demonstrated courage along with their intellectual acumen in tackling politically sensitive, culturally taboo, and personally dangerous topics within their research. Theirs is a moving testimony to the global quest for fairness within the world of admission policy implementation and to the power of access to higher education. Together, we are determined to advance equitable admissions praxis within all institutions of higher learning and promising futures for all students.
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2 Higher Education Admission Policy and Practices in India

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CHAPTER 2

Higher Education Admission Policy and Practices in India

Rituparna Das

Concepts of Higher Education

The place of higher education in Indian society may be derived from the idea of different endowments possessed by different individuals. Since India gained its independence from Britain in 1947, it has grounded its academic discourse about the concepts, nature, and utility of modern education on the nineteenth-century work of Herbert Spencer (1860) and the twentieth-century thinking of John Dewey (1930). In addition to the insights of Dewey and Spencer, there are concepts and modes of imparting higher education conceived within a number of philosophies that emerged across time and religion and influenced makers of higher education policy in India. They consist of the following: the Vedic School, the Buddhist School, the Islamic School, the Platonic School, Freire’s philosophy, and the UNESCO literature.

The Vedic School

The Vedic School was founded by the Hindu sages mostly staying along the bank of the river Ganga during the Vedic Age, which lasted between 1700 BC and 500 BC. Its medium of instruction was the Sanskrit language and students studied specialized courses, such as “Nyay” (logic), depending upon their aptitude. With that knowledge they could open their own school or join the court of the king as a scholar. Education was based solely on memory and there were no books. Disciples acquired their education by listening to the sayings of their master....

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