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International Perspectives on Higher Education Admission Policy

A Reader


Edited By Virginia Stead

The promise of this admission policy reader arises from the embodiment of research from 58 authors, six continents, 20 time zones, 20+ first languages, and a broad array of research methodologies. Four sections aggregate key themes within the text:
(1) National Perspectives on Higher Education Admission Policy;
(2) Theoretical Approaches to Higher Education Admission Policy;
(3) Applicant Recruitment and Student Support Services in Higher Education; and
(4) Diversity and Equity in Higher Education Admission Policy Implementation.
This book's global chorus of professional experience, investigation, and insight is unprecedented in its breadth and depth, illuminating a rare swath of challenges and opportunities that Internet-sourced international higher education makes visible. Although each chapter is an independent research report, together they generate a new landscape for admission policy orientation, exploration, and activism. The sheer range of policies and organizational infrastructure will alert all readers to many complexities within the admissions process that remain invisible within single or multiple but similar cultural and political contexts.
Many of these authors have demonstrated courage along with their intellectual acumen in tackling politically sensitive, culturally taboo, and personally dangerous topics within their research. Theirs is a moving testimony to the global quest for fairness within the world of admission policy implementation and to the power of access to higher education. Together, we are determined to advance equitable admissions praxis within all institutions of higher learning and promising futures for all students.
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26 Diversity in American Graduate Education Admissions: Twenty-First-Century Challenges and Opportunities


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Diversity in American Graduate Education Admissions

Twenty-First-Century Challenges and Opportunities

Donald Mitchell Jr. and Elizabeth Daniele


One goal of U.S. President Barack Obama’s agenda is for the United States to become the most college-educated nation in the world by the year 2020. While President Obama’s goal focuses on K–12 and undergraduate education—with a particular interest in the sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM fields), we would argue that graduate education is just as important in the U.S. quest for educational and economic improvement. For the United States to reach President Obama’s 2020 goal, African American, Hispanic American, and Native American representation in graduate education, groups known as underrepresented minorities (URMs), must improve. In 2010, there were nearly 1.5 million U.S. citizens and permanent residents enrolled in graduate study. (Council of Graduate Schools [CGS], 2011). Of that total, approximately 12% were African American, nearly 8% were Hispanic American, and less than 1% were Native American (CGS). The numbers for that year are even lower for URMs in STEM fields. For example, African Americans represented 5.3%, Hispanic Americans represented 6.4%, and Native Americans represented 0.4% of all U.S. citizens and permanent residents pursuing graduate degrees in engineering. In comparison, temporary residents represented 45% of all graduate students in engineering (CGS).

Niemann and Maruyama (2005) argue racial and ethnic diversity in higher education is a matter of national need as demographics shift. STEM...

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