Aspects of Inclusion and Exclusion
Edited By Stefanie Stolz and Philipp Gonon
II. Gender Mainstreaming and the Mechanisms of Inclusion
ANJA HEIKKINEN, JOHANNA LAMMELA, LEENA LIETZÉN, JOHANNA LÄTTI, EMMA VIRTANEN Gender Mainstreaming: Inclusion or Exclusion Is There Inclusion Without Exclusion Being included and excluded are always intertwined. In education and work practices and policies, inclusion and exclusion based on gender is a hot issue. Gender mainstreaming as a systematic imple- mentation of awareness and of equality between genders has been high on the trans-national political agendas of the ILO, UNESCO (e. g. UNESCO 1994; UN Women 1995) and the European Union and its member states (e. g. European Commission, 1996) for a long time. Inside the EU, gender-mainstreaming is defined as (t)he (re)organisation, improvement, development and evaluation of policy pro- cesses, so that a gender equality perspective is incorporated in all policies at all levels and at all stages, by the actors normally involved in policy-making (Coun- cil of Europe, 1998, p. 15). Furthermore, (a) gender perspective on education and employment should pay attention to gender parity […] and should incorporate a gender perspective in all policies and programmes […]. Attention should also be paid to gender-aware educatio- nal environments and to educational segregation […] (P)olicies focused on the labour market need to be screened so that they counterbalance tendencies to- wards occupational segregation […]. (G)ender equality needs to be mainstreamed into macroeconomic policies, policies and regulations on unpaid care work, and decision-making in private governance. In all gender mainstreaming practices, women’s voices must be included (European Training Foundation 2006, p. 12 f.). In the Nordic countries, gender-equality...
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