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Challenges and Reforms in Vocational Education

Aspects of Inclusion and Exclusion


Edited By Stefanie Stolz and Philipp Gonon

In this collected edition, globalization and its consequences on vocational education systems are described and, at the same time, combined with the question of whether new phenomena of inclusion but also of exclusion are produced. Inclusion and exclusion are differentiations that predominate in all kinds of (vocational education) systems, regardless of their national background. These terms base on the requirements of the system itself but also on shortages, particularly when supply and demand are dehiscing. Vocational education developed out of the requirement to integrate large parts of society into a broader or more extended education and, consequently, into an economic and social process. Besides the so-called «social question», gender-, status- and generation-specific characteristics and also the participation in higher education are under discussion. Depending on each country – this volume features contributions of Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Denmark, France, Finland, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA – this debate generates a different development which is described by the authors in their different research areas. Collectively, a multifaceted overall picture arises which illustrates the importance of inclusion and exclusion.


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II. Gender Mainstreaming and the Mechanisms of Inclusion


ANJA HEIKKINEN, JOHANNA LAMMELA, LEENA LIETZÉN, JOHANNA LÄTTI, EMMA VIRTANEN Gender Mainstreaming: Inclusion or Exclusion Is There Inclusion Without Exclusion Being included and excluded are always intertwined. In education and work practices and policies, inclusion and exclusion based on gender is a hot issue. Gender mainstreaming as a systematic imple- mentation of awareness and of equality between genders has been high on the trans-national political agendas of the ILO, UNESCO (e. g. UNESCO 1994; UN Women 1995) and the European Union and its member states (e. g. European Commission, 1996) for a long time. Inside the EU, gender-mainstreaming is defined as (t)he (re)organisation, improvement, development and evaluation of policy pro- cesses, so that a gender equality perspective is incorporated in all policies at all levels and at all stages, by the actors normally involved in policy-making (Coun- cil of Europe, 1998, p. 15). Furthermore, (a) gender perspective on education and employment should pay attention to gender parity […] and should incorporate a gender perspective in all policies and programmes […]. Attention should also be paid to gender-aware educatio- nal environments and to educational segregation […] (P)olicies focused on the labour market need to be screened so that they counterbalance tendencies to- wards occupational segregation […]. (G)ender equality needs to be mainstreamed into macroeconomic policies, policies and regulations on unpaid care work, and decision-making in private governance. In all gender mainstreaming practices, women’s voices must be included (European Training Foundation 2006, p. 12 f.). In the Nordic countries, gender-equality...

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