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New Trends and Methodologies in Applied English Language Research II

Studies in Language Variation, Meaning and Learning

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Edited By David Tizón Couto, Beatriz Tizon-Couto, Iria Pastor-Gomez and Maurizio Gotti

This volume has its origin in a selection of the papers presented at the Second ELC International Postgraduate Conference on English Linguistics (ELC2), held at the University of Vigo in October 2009 and designed and organised by postgraduate students belonging to the English Departments of the Universities of Vigo and Santiago de Compostela. The purpose of the conference was to allow young professional researchers to share and survey their current views on linguistic research. Four of the ten chapters included address the diachronic change undergone by particular lexical items, namely the morphosemantic change illustrated by the development of the morpheme punk, the historical evolution of including and included, the origin and semantics of the expletive form adsheartlikins, and the structure and distribution of nominalisations referring to actions or processes. Variation is also approached from a diatopic perspective in the study of expressions of obligation and necessity ( must and have to) in New Englishes, the distribution and functions of the discourse marker eh in Channel Island English, and regional variability of vowel phonology in Scottish Standard English. Lastly, three studies address semantics and culture in the field of L2 learning. These contributions focus on the assessment of Lexical Frequency Profile applications in the analysis of Romanian learner English, the role of cultural knowledge in the learning process of English as an International Language, and L1 typicality effects in L2 vocabulary learning.

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GABRIELA DIACONU - Assessing Subjectivity and Objectivityin Modal Expressions from New Englishes: A Multivariate Analysis 37

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GABRIELA DIACONU Assessing Subjectivity and Objectivity in Modal Expressions from New Englishes: A Multivariate Analysis1 1. Introduction One of the most dynamic areas in present-day English grammar is the modality system where there has been lively competition among the modals and semi-modals. Recent research suggests a rather divergent use of expressions in different varieties of present-day English, namely that expressions encoding root modality using core modals are decreasing quantitatively, whereas semi-modals are rapidly increasing. Real-time corpus-based studies have shown that the most salient con- trasts can be observed in the relative distribution of root2 vs. epistemic obligation or necessity when using modal must, semi-modal have to or (have) got to. Possible explanations for these changes have been sought both at the level of discourse and at the level of structural change. Three discourse trends which have been identified are: ‘Americanization’, ‘colloquialization’ (Leech 2003; Mair/Leech 2006); ‘Democratization of discourse’ (Fairclough 1992; Myhill 1995; Smith 2003). The structural change commonly assumed to be at work is grammaticalisation, which links morphosyntactic change to seman- tic developments (Traugott 1989; Krug 2000) or to the shifts in dis- 1 I would like to thank my supervisor Prof. Christian Mair and Dr. Nicholas Smith for their insightful comments on earlier drafts of this chapter. I am grateful also to the participants and the organisers of the ELC2 Postgraduate Conference held in Vigo (Spain), October 30-31, 2009. 2 For the sake of clarity, root modality (in the field of obligation/necessity) is equivalent to deontic or non-epistemic modality...

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