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English as a Lingua Franca in Cross-cultural Immigration Domains

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Maria Grazia Guido

This book explores the cognitive and communicative processes involved in the use of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) within cross-cultural specialized contexts where non-native speakers of English – i.e. Western experts and non-Western migrants – interact. The book argues that the main communicative difficulties in such contexts are due precisely to the use of ELF, since it develops from the non-native speakers’ transfer of their native language structures and socio-cultural schemata into the English they speak. Transfer, in fact, allows non-native speakers to appropriate, or authenticate, those English semantic, syntactic, pragmatic and specialized-discourse structures that are linguistically and conceptually unavailable to them. It follows that there are as many ELF varieties as there are communities of non-native speakers authenticating English.
The research questions justifying the ethnographic case studies detailed in this book are: What kind of cognitive frames and communicative strategies do Western experts activate in order to convey their culturally-marked knowledge of specialized discourse – by using their ELF varieties – to non-Westerners with different linguistic and socio-cultural backgrounds? What kind of power asymmetries can be identified when non-Westerners try to communicate their own knowledge by using their respective ELF varieties? Is it possible to ultimately develop a mode of ELF specialized communication that can be shared by both Western experts and non-Western migrants?

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Appendix 277

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277 Appendix Corpus of PTSD articles examined for the comparative analysis Boehnlein, J.K. / Kinzie, J.D. 1995. Refugee Trauma. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review 32, 223-252. Bolton, P. 2001. Local Perceptions of the Mental Health Effects of the Rwandan Genocide. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 189, 243-248. Carlson, E. / Rosser-Hoggan, R. 1994. Cross-cultural Responses to Trauma: A Study of Traumatic Experiences and Post-traumatic Symptoms in Cambodian Refu- gees. Journal of Traumatic Stress 7, 43-58. Falsetti, S. / Resnick, H. 1997. Frequency and Severity of Panic Attack Symptoms in a Treatment-seeking Sample of Trauma Victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress 10: 683-689. Fox, S. H. 2003. The Mandinka Nosological System in the Context of Post-Traumatic Syndromes. Transcultural Psychiatry 40, 460-487. Hinton, D. / Pich, V. / Chhean, D. / Pollack, M. 2004. Olfactory-Triggered Panic Attacks Among Khmer Refugees: A Contextual Approach. Transcultural Psychiatry 41, 155-199. Hodes, M. 2002. Three Key Issues for Young Refugees’ Mental Health. Transcultural Psychiatry 39, 196-213. Kinzie, D. / Boehnlein, A.K. 1993. Psychotherapy of the Victims of Massive Vio- lence: Countertransference and Ethical Issues. American Journal of Psycho- therapy 47, 90-103. Medical Foundation 1999. Reported Patterns of Human Rights Abuse and Torture. UK Medical Foundation for Care of Victims by Torture. Mezey, G. / Robbins, I. 2001. Usefulness and Validity of Post-traumatic Stress Disor- der as a Psychiatric Category. BMJournal 323, 561-563. van Ommeren, M. / Sharma, B. / Sharma, G.K. / Komproe, I. / Cardena, E. / de Jong, J.T. 2002. The Relationship Between Somatic and...

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