Chapter 9. Ways of Speaking
Chapter 9 Ways of Speaking Dell Hymes explored how people make sense of and negotiate social reality by analysing their ‘ways of speaking’. Under the rubric of ‘ways of speak- ing’, Hymes and Gumperz (1964: 1–34) offer a bipartite conception of speech that focuses on the ‘means of speech’ and the ‘speech economy’ these speakers participate in. Hymes wished to investigate what speakers can and do say, and the context in which they say it. For Hymes, speech cannot be separated from the cultural background that shapes its linguistic form, and it is in this spirit that this chapter has been written. This chapter and the next address the question of what does the Inugguit use of verbal/non-verbal language and so-called ‘practices of belonging’ tell us about how the Inugguit organise language and experience. I focus on speaking because this is a pseudo-oral culture where the written norm is a separate, but related language, Standard West Greenlandic, i.e. the language they write is not the language they speak. With just 700 speakers, their spoken language, Polar Eskimo, is a lan- guage of glottal stops and outsiders have described it as not sounding like a language at all, but as a series of sighs, heavy breathing and broken, jerky sounds. Impressionistically, this is a language that comes from the stomach or the middle of the body. Outsiders wishing to learn the language are told that as a first step they have to learn to make the sounds of a polar...
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