Chapter 3: Morphology
Chapter 3 Morphology Key terms • Analytic causativity • Causativity • Free morphemes • Grammatical morphemes • Inflectional morphemes • Lexical causativity • Morpheme • Morphological causativity • Morphology • Syntax • Transitivity The previous chapter looked into three main approaches to describing the relationships between words and concepts, namely semantic field, formal approaches (such as componential analysis and meaning postulates approach), and frame semantics. This chapter gives full consideration to morphology, causativity, and transitivity in a direct link with the actual act of translating a text. 3.1 Grammar Grammar has two main dimensions: morphology and syntax. Morphology focuses on the structure of lexical items, the units that make up lexical items, and the way in which the form of lexical items varies, thus indicating 36 Chapter 3 specific contrasts in the grammatical system of language, such as past/ present/future, singular/dual/plural, passive/active, etc. (Almanna 2016: 83). Syntax, on the other hand, deals with the grammatical structure of groups of words (clauses vs sentences), and the linear sequence of classes of words (noun, verb, adverb, adjective, etc.). The syntactic structure imposes restrictions on the way messages can be organized in the text. Syntacticians describe how words combine into phrases and clauses, and how these combine to form sentences. For example, I bought a book two days ago is embedded as a relative clause in the sentence The book that I bought two days ago is quite valuable and interesting. Choices in language can be expressed grammatically or lexically. In this respect, Almanna (2016: 82) comments: “Choices made from closed systems (singular/dual/plural; past/present/future;...
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