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Semantics for Translation Students



Ali Almanna

This book is an introduction to semantics for students and researchers who are new to the field, especially those interested in Arabic–English translation and Arabic–English contrastive studies. The book first presents key concepts in semantics, pragmatics, semiotics, syntax and morphology and gradually introduces readers to the central questions of semantics. These issues are then analysed and discussed in conjunction with the act of translating between Arabic and English. Seeking a balance between theoretical developments and empirical investigation, the book thus provides both a systematic overview of semantics and an application in the field of English and Arabic contrastive semantics, hence offering a resource for students and teachers of Arabic–English translation.


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Chapter 4: Affixation


Chapter 4 Affixation Key terms • Affixation • Chameleon prefixes • Homonymous affixes • Inflectional morphemes • Polysemous affixes • Prefixation • Suffixation The previous chapter considered the similarities and differences in morphol- ogy, causativity, and transitivity between Arabic and English. This chapter examines affixation, such as infixes, prefixes, and suffixes, in a direct link with the actual act of translating a text. 4.1 Affixation Affixation refers to the addition of prefixes, suffixes or infixes (an infix means a letter or a group of letters added within the word stem in some languages, such as Arabic). To begin with English affixation, a prefix is a letter or a group of letters attached to the beginning of a word and changes its original meaning. A suffix, however, is a letter or a group of letters attached to the end of a word and changes the way a word fits into a sentence grammati- cally. For its turn, Arabic has prefixes, infixes and suffixes; however, they are derivational and inflectional, that is, they are limited in number. For 50 Chapter 4 example, the prefix ـ م is attached in Arabic to a number of verbs to indicate the place where an action or event is done, such as: Word stem (verb) Place • ََبتَك (to write) — بتكم (office) • َلمَع (to work) — لمعم (factory) • َعَزن (to take off ) — عزنم (changing room) • َحبذ or َخلس (to slaughter) — حبذم/خلسم (slaughterhouse) • ىعس (to move or attempt) — ىعسم (attempt or effort) • ىمر (to throw) — ىمرم (goal, range or distance) • َعضو (to put) — عضوم (position) • َعقو (to fall) — عقوم (site or location) • َلزن (to go down) — لزنم (house) • َطبه (to land) — طبهم (landing ground or landing field) • َدعص (to...

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