Chapter 4: Affixation
Chapter 4 Affixation Key terms • Affixation • Chameleon prefixes • Homonymous affixes • Inflectional morphemes • Polysemous affixes • Prefixation • Suffixation The previous chapter considered the similarities and differences in morphol- ogy, causativity, and transitivity between Arabic and English. This chapter examines affixation, such as infixes, prefixes, and suffixes, in a direct link with the actual act of translating a text. 4.1 Affixation Affixation refers to the addition of prefixes, suffixes or infixes (an infix means a letter or a group of letters added within the word stem in some languages, such as Arabic). To begin with English affixation, a prefix is a letter or a group of letters attached to the beginning of a word and changes its original meaning. A suffix, however, is a letter or a group of letters attached to the end of a word and changes the way a word fits into a sentence grammati- cally. For its turn, Arabic has prefixes, infixes and suffixes; however, they are derivational and inflectional, that is, they are limited in number. For 50 Chapter 4 example, the prefix ـ م is attached in Arabic to a number of verbs to indicate the place where an action or event is done, such as: Word stem (verb) Place • ََبتَك (to write) — بتكم (office) • َلمَع (to work) — لمعم (factory) • َعَزن (to take off ) — عزنم (changing room) • َحبذ or َخلس (to slaughter) — حبذم/خلسم (slaughterhouse) • ىعس (to move or attempt) — ىعسم (attempt or effort) • ىمر (to throw) — ىمرم (goal, range or distance) • َعضو (to put) — عضوم (position) • َعقو (to fall) — عقوم (site or location) • َلزن (to go down) — لزنم (house) • َطبه (to land) — طبهم (landing ground or landing field) • َدعص (to...
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