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Language Education

Controversies, Observations and Proposals


Edited By Danuta Stanulewicz, Karolina Janczukowicz and Małgorzata Rocławska-Daniluk

This collection of papers explores various issues in English language teaching in Poland, mainly at the secondary and tertiary levels. The topics include Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), English for Specific Purposes (ESP), and e-learning. The contributions also deal with teaching public speaking, pronunciation and writing. The contributors explore language education from the perspective of cognitive linguistics and propose solutions concerning English for Specific Purposes (Technical Writing in English and Maritime English) as well. The book also investigates teaching not only languages but also, inter alia, geography and linguistics, concentrating on the use of metaphors, prototypes and cognitive models.

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Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): An administrative directive or educational opportunity? (Hanna Kryszewska)


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Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): An administrative directive or educational opportunity?

Hanna Kryszewska

University of Gdańsk

Abstract: The aim of the chapter is to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) which has been a pedagogical trend for a number of decades, especially in Europe, and which over the years has undergone significant changes. The way CLIL is understood and the extent to which it is implemented varies from school to school, or from country to country, but overall it is a European Union / Council of Europe directive for reforming teaching foreign languages, especially English. Some teachers perceive this shift as a threat and resist this new trend, some see it as an opportunity for growth and welcome the change which moves with the times and seems suitable for education in the twenty-first century.

Keywords: Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), Council of Europe, English as lingua franca (ELF), English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI), English Language Teaching (ELT), European Union, pedagogical developments

1. Background to CLIL

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), coined as a formal term by David Marsh and Anne Maljers, has been present in language education since 1994 (online source: What is CLIL), but the foundations for it were laid in the seventies of the previous century (online source: Resolution of the Council and of the Ministers of Education, Meeting within the...

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