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Language Education

Controversies, Observations and Proposals


Edited By Danuta Stanulewicz, Karolina Janczukowicz and Małgorzata Rocławska-Daniluk

This collection of papers explores various issues in English language teaching in Poland, mainly at the secondary and tertiary levels. The topics include Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), English for Specific Purposes (ESP), and e-learning. The contributions also deal with teaching public speaking, pronunciation and writing. The contributors explore language education from the perspective of cognitive linguistics and propose solutions concerning English for Specific Purposes (Technical Writing in English and Maritime English) as well. The book also investigates teaching not only languages but also, inter alia, geography and linguistics, concentrating on the use of metaphors, prototypes and cognitive models.

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Non-native bilingual family configurations (Sonia Szramek-Karcz)


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Non-native bilingual family configurations

Sonia Szramek-Karcz

University of Silesia

Abstract: We call a non-native bilingual family a family (NNB family) where parents speak to their child the language they did not grow up with. The research has demonstrated so far that NNB families do not differ from naturally bilingual families (were parents are native speakers of two different languages). NNB families are characterized by the diversity of configurations that determine the course of NNB. There are different opinions about speaking one’s non-native language to the child.

In this chapter, an approach to NNB family configurations is presented. 13 types of parents are distinguished depending on the language they speak to the child (L1, L2 or L3), the time they start to speak the chosen language to the child, the fact they know or do not know the language their partner has chosen to communicate with the child and their attitude towards early simultaneous child bilingualism. The study emphasizes the importance of the parents’ attitudes.

Keywords: attitude, family configurations, input, motivation, non-native bilingualism

1. Introduction

Non-Native Bilingualism (henceforth NNB) is defined as a type of bilingualism that has been created, introduced, formed in an intentional way. In other words, NNB is the situation where one or both parents speak a foreign language to the child. The foreign language is, in fact, a second language of the family who is monolingual considering the parents native...

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