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Il discorso sulle migrazioni / Der Migrationsdiskurs

Approcci linguistici, comparativi e interdisciplinari / Sprachwissenschaftliche, vergleichende und interdisziplinäre Perspektiven

Edited By Daniela Pietrini

Sempre presenti nella storia dell’umanità, le migrazioni sono divenute negli ultimi anni un tema centrale della politica e della cultura europee. Attraverso i contributi di studiosi di paesi e discipline differenti, il volume indaga su come sia costruita linguisticamente la recente discussione pubblica sulla migrazione, analizzando il lessico, l’argomentazione, il discorso sui migranti nella politica e nella legislazione, nei giornali, nei social media, nel cinema. Il focus è sulla situazione italiana e tedesca, ma vi sono anche studi su altri paesi (Francia, Regno Unito, Romania, Spagna) e ricerche comparative.       

Seit jeher sind Migrationsbewegungen Teil der Menschheitsgeschichte. Doch erst in den letzten Jahren sind sie ein zentrales Thema der europäischen Kultur und Politik geworden. Mit Beiträgen von Wissenschaftlern unterschiedlicher Provenienz und Fachrichtung geht der vorliegende Band der Frage nach, wie die neueste öffentliche Diskussion über die Migration sprachlich konstruiert wird. Untersucht werden dafür der Wortschatz, die Argumentation und der Diskurs über die Migranten in Politik und Gesetzgebung sowie in der Presse, in den Social media und im Film. Im Zentrum stehen Italien und Deutschland, doch es gibt auch Studien zu anderen Ländern (Frankreich, Großbritannien, Rumänien, Spanien) und vergleichende Forschung.

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Il fenomeno migratorio attraverso la lessicografia: cambiamenti nei vocabolari dell’uso (Raphael Merida)

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Parte seconda:   Il discorso italiano sulle migrazioni / Second Part: The Italian Discourse on Migration

Raphael Merida

Il fenomeno migratorio attraverso la lessicografia: cambiamenti nei vocabolari dell’uso

The migration phenomenon in lexicography: change in common use dictionaries

Abstract: The migration crisis involving European countries, especially those in southern Europe like Italy, started in the 2000s and continued with increasing intensity; it affects them not only on a juridical and sociological level, but also on a terminological one. In the past, in everyday and media language as well as on a more specialised level (for example on the juridical one), lexical choices were more attentive to the literal, etymological, or at least monosemic, use of word; nowadays new trends dominate the linguistic scenario to the detriment of clarity. Among these, the coining of neologisms (for example extracomunitario) or the re-semantization of existing words (such as clandestino) which acquire a more or less pronounced discriminatory or ideological meaning.

A prime example of this can be found in the 2017 edition of Devoto-Oli, which proposes for hot spot the recent wording «struttura destinata ad accogliere temporaneamente profughi e immigrati per identificarli e indirizzarli verso altre destinazioni». Under this point of view and with constant updates, dictionaries prove to be a necessary linguistic yardstick that shorten or extend according to the historical period and the phenomena. For the purposes of our investigation, we will confront diachronically some of the most important dictionaries (Devoto-Oli and...

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