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Über die Anfänge des Denkens − Kognition und Siedlung

Soziologie der Steinzeit – von der Höhlenmalerei zum Göbekli Tepe

Lars Hennings

Diese Studie sammelt Thesen für eine interdisziplinäre Forschung der Soziologie als Leitwissenschaft zur Erkundung der Steinzeit. Nach Ankunft des Homo sapiens von Afrika nach Westeuropa beginnt nach dessen biologischer Stabilisierung seine weitere Formung als sozialer, sich selbst verändernder Prozess. Die Artefakte zeigen zu Beginn einen sehr schlichten Typus, der sich eben erst von Homo erectus und neanderthalensis entfernt. Die humanen Veränderungen folgen nicht mehr der Darwinschen Zuchtwahl. Bald entstehen, bei wildbeuterischer Lebensweise, feste Siedlungen, die die Sozialität ausweiten, eine Sprech-Sprache fördern und mit den Anfängen des Denkens eine frühe traditionale Logik ausbilden, die über Sumer, Griechenland ins europäische Denken führt.

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From the point of view of an interdisciplinary sociology, the development of cognition and language is examined for the younger Stone Age (Late Paleolithic) in Western Europe and the Near East. From cave paintings to small sculptures and flutes, a new quality of communication emerges with the beginning of this epoch from 40,000 years ago, which only slowly allows speech language to develop from signs and gestures. This happens primarily in settlements of collectors and hunters, where rules of peaceful coexistence have to be established. As the end point of this development, the view leads to the Spiritual Center at Göbekli Tepe in Anatolia as the first, still collecting and hunting advanced civilization.

Especially the subjects archaeology, developmental psychology, neurology, linguistics are consulted in this regard. After references to the process-oriented method of a historical sociology, three types of Homo sapiens of the Late Paleolithic are presented: Older and Younger collectors and hunters, as well as the Socially-differentiated community, which was able to plan and establish the Spiritual Center because it was because it was obviously patriarchal, based on the division of labour and hierarchically structured. The central male figures of gods in the circular buildings there symbolize this; something similar applies to the Tower of Jericho.

In contrast, very simply organized and thinking people started cave painting and carving 40,000 years ago. This is evidenced by the still very simple artifacts that archaeology presents. Since the shape of the skull in Homo...

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