Adrea Lawrence: Lessons of Colonization: Uni- and Multi-Directional Learning in Pueblo Indian Country
Lessons of Colonization: Uni- and Multi-Directional Learning in Pueblo Indian Country Adrea Lawrence, American University, USA At the turn of the twentieth century, the New Mexico Territory was a nexus of intercultural interaction and exchange. Pueblo Indian1 presence along the north- ern Rio Grande has been rooted there from time immemorial. Pueblo Indians’ early experiences with other Indigenous peoples, such as the Ute, Jicarilla Apaches, Comanches, and Diné (Navajo), and later Spanish colonists estab- lished the region as a vibrant borderland. When Spanish conquistadors and set- tlers moved north from their hub in what is now Mexico in the sixteenth century, they treated Native peoples as objects of conquest in order to establish colonial outposts that would generate monetary wealth through the mining of silver and gold, and spiritual wealth through the saving of souls. The Spanish colonial sys- tems of tribute and forced labor, though, had little appeal for the Pueblo peoples who had to endure them; and in 1680, several Indian Pueblos along the Rio Grande worked together to force the secular and religious colonists out of the area. The Pueblo Revolt, as it is now known, kept the Spanish at bay for twelve years. Upon their return – by invitation (Sando 1992: 63-69) or through re- conquest (Galgano 2005: 136-141; Roberts 2004: 9-27) – the Spanish colonials and the Pueblo peoples carefully negotiated syncretic living arrangements that included new legal provisions for land grants and how they were to be used, the Spanish settlers’ adoption of Puebloan irrigation techniques,...
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