Policies and Practices
Edited By Yasemin Bayyurt and Yesim Bektas Cetinkaya
Part 1: Teacher Education in Turkey
Part 1 Teacher Education in Turkey 25 Chapter 1 Preservice English Language Teacher Education in Turkey Ayşe S. Akyel, Yeditepe University Educational Reforms in the Ottoman Empire during the 19th Century During the first half of the 19th century various social and military reforms con- tributed to the modernization of the Ottoman Empire. Changes in educational policies were intended to make them more Western in style and substance. The first teacher education school (Darülmuallimin-i Rüşdi1) in the Ottoman Empire was opened in 1848, based on the understanding that improvement of the edu- cational system would be possible only if teacher-training schools were opened (Akyüz, 2005; Çakıroğlu & Çakıroğlu, 2003; Ergin, 1990; Öztürk, 2005). The first regulation for general education, which placed state schools under the control of the Ministry of Education (Maarif-i Umumiye Nizamnamesi), was promulgated in 1869, (Akyüz, 2009; Binbaşıoğlu, 1995; Öztürk, 2005). The regu- lation also mandated that only graduates of teacher-training schools were to be appointed as teachers (See Akyüz, 2005; Öztürk, 2005). However, a variety of independent private schools continued to flourish until 1924, one year after the foundation of the Republic, when the Turkish Education System was centralized. The various types of schools in the Ottoman system included: • Traditional institutions (Medrese, Enderun) under the control of religious foun- dations. All the teachers were religious functionaries. These schools were closed in 1924. • Military schools under military control. The opening of these schools...
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