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Prolegomena to the Study of Modern Philosophy



This book is divided into nine chapters trying to draw attention to the various aspects of the understanding of God, to the question of the individual, the ideal state arrangement, and the question of freedom (free will) as well as of history. Special attention is paid to the issue of cognition, the question of reason and sense, as well as language and the issue of a system in philosophy. The chapters are arranged to show the historical characteristics of the issues with an introduction of the key approach and ideas with references.


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The Problem of Cognition in Modern Philosophy


  Keywords: rationalism, inativism, empiricism, sensualism, idealism   The question of cognition represents an important piece of philosophical research; however, presumably in no other period has this question been asked as insistently and repeatedly as in the modern period. With a degree of exaggeration, we could consider it an epistemological period par excellence. The reason is rooted in the historic context of shat- tering old gnozeological, cosmological, and religious ideas, and in the need for clarifi cation of what is valid or not. At the end of the Middle Ages, the Ptolemaic worldview disintegrated, a  new continent was discov- ered, Aristotelian physics foundered, Constantinople collapsed, Protestantism appeared, and eternal truths were doubted. With the advent of Byzantine think- ers, Plato was rediscovered, Aristotle was revised, and philosophers like F. Bacon or R. Descartes were forced to 40 refl ect on the basis of a new science and safe cognition (Novák, 2012, 229). The question of cognition in the early modern period may be perceived as a paraphrase of the classic combat between Platonism and Aristotelianism in the modern period. A  suitable example demonstrating such refl ec- tions is the confl ict of Cusanus and Bruno’s Platonism, or of the Florentine Academy and the renaissance think- ing of Paracelsus, Telesio, and other renaissance think- ers, as well as Descartes’ methodical doubting of the foundations of all cognition. Descartes realized that we often believe things which frequently prove to be false later. Therefore, our knowledge should be rooted in something doubtless and certain,...

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