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Prolegomena to the Study of Modern Philosophy



This book is divided into nine chapters trying to draw attention to the various aspects of the understanding of God, to the question of the individual, the ideal state arrangement, and the question of freedom (free will) as well as of history. Special attention is paid to the issue of cognition, the question of reason and sense, as well as language and the issue of a system in philosophy. The chapters are arranged to show the historical characteristics of the issues with an introduction of the key approach and ideas with references.


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Understanding Nature in Modern Philosophy


  Keywords: mechanicism, panpsychism, materialism, refl exivity, productivity.   One of the most vivid characteristic features of modern thinking is an interest in nature. Nature not only became a focus of renaissance and modern thinkers, but also the locality of thinking – the place of observations, sugges- tions and experiments, as well as the place which some considered their original home or others their enemy that should be defeated along the path to the implemen- tation of human potential. While medieval thinkers were looking up to God and tried to penetrate an eternal God’s ideas of the world, renaissance and modern thinkers understood that God can be best known through the knowledge of His crea- tions. Moreover, nature was not just a  seal of divine wisdom (imago idei), but later it became divine through understanding its deep secrets. 80 Renaissance thinkers such as Cusanus, Bruno and the others believed that through knowing nature it is possi- ble to access God’s original ideas by which He created the world. Therefore, nature is the mirror of the ideal; and if we observe it, we may gaze upon eternal truths. Nature was perceived as a huge encrypted book, and our task is to discover the language in which it is written. Astrologists, alchemists, and magicians believed that it is an occult language. They were looking for symbol- ism in shapes, relations, and numbers, as well as in the fundamental elements of the world. Between the lines they were looking for the key to reading this book,...

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