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Introduction to the Study of the History of Epistemology



The text is structured in chronological and ideological order and presents nine basic types of the classical perception of the problem of knowledge through an analysis of the atomistic theory of perception, Platonism, Aristotle’s doctrine, scepticism, rationalism, sensualism, Kant’s theory, phenomenological-existential, pragmatic, and (post) analytical perceptions. The proposed work aspires to be an introduction (not a complete presentation, neither in the number of types, nor in a full interpretation) and a basis for the reader’s interpretations which is reflected in the structure of the text.


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Kant’s Transcendental Idealistic Theory of Knowledge


97 Kant’s Transcendental Idealistic Theory of Knowledge   Keywords: forms of experience, intellect, reason, paralogism, noumenon   The confl ict between rationalism and empiricism, bet- ween a priori and a posteriori knowledge, between nec- essary and probable, is solved by Kant’s theory of know- ledge. Kant, who was academically brought up on Wolff - Leibnizian rationalism, understood the potential and achievements of Newtonian science which was based in mathematical principles and observations, experi- ence, and experiment. The question was how are we able to derive laws explaining all reality, including that which has not happened yet, from experience. Accord- ing to Hume’s scepticism, experience is not able to grant knowledge of the inevitable and general, nor knowledge which could aspire to complete certainty. This, however, happens in the case of Newtonian physics, mathemat- ics, geometry, and other sciences. Moreover it is obvious 98 that these natural laws are not mere speculations, but that their ability to predict is almost perfect. How is this possible? Kant went back to an old distinction of knowledge, according to which there are analytic and synthetic statements (Kant 1979, 51). Analytic statements are those in which the predicate states what is contained in the term (subject). An example of such a  statement is: “The sphere is an object.” The three-dimensionality of this object (physicality as spatiality) is already contained in the term sphere (contrary to the two-dimensional “circle”). This is why such a  statement is always true, because it states what is in the subject. It does...

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