A study conducted in German post-DESI EFL classrooms
3. Theoretical framework
3.1 PPP – a traditional teaching and learning method
3.1.1 Definition and theoretical rationale
“Presentation-practice-produce” (in short: PPP) refers to a teaching method8 which has been and still is widely used in foreign language classrooms worldwide (cf. Skehan 1998, p. 94 f. and Müller-Hartmann/Schocker-von Ditfurth 2011, p. 214). As its name implies, three successive stages of teaching language features are implemented by the teacher when applying this method. These steps are described by Frost (2003) as follows:
A PPP would proceed in the following manner: First, the teacher presents an item of language in a clear context to get across its meaning. This could be done in a variety of ways: through a text, a situation, a dialogue, etc. Students are then asked to complete a controlled practice stage, when they may have to repeat target items through choral or individual drilling, fill gaps or match half of sentences (….) Finally, they move on to the production stage, sometimes called the “free practice” stage (Richard Frost, 2003, as cited in Haß, 2006, p. 204).
The above exemplification of specific ways of presenting and practicing language items corresponds to the structure of a number of English text- or course books, such as the one which was used by the students who took part in the various tests and questionnaires of this dissertation.9 For example, students are offered highly constructed texts at the beginning of each unit within which the target structure of...
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