Sprachlicher Inzest in Weißrussland und der Ukraine?
Edited By Gerd Hentschel, Oleksandr Taranenko and Siarhej Zaprudski
On the systemicity of Belarusian-Russian Mixed Speech: the redistribution of Belarusian and Russian variants of functional words
A dichotomous perspective2 on language (as on separate languages) has, at the latest, been established since Ferdinand de Saussure’s distinction between langue and parole. Closely related to this conceptual pair are others, such as linguistic structure and speech act, speech possession and speech, system and text, schema and usage and last, but not least, Chomsky’s competence and performance. All these dichotomies share the understanding that in a strictly synchronic view, the first term determines (together with other things, for example, intellectual capacities or mental state of the speaker or writer) the second. Think of de Saussure’s famous comparison of the system chess, i.e. its rules and both qualitatively and quantitatively differentiated pieces, with its infinite number of individual moves, as being equivalent to speech. However, de Saussure also considered, with a diachronic view, the influence of parole on langue – no innovation enters language without having first been tried out in speech (DE SAUSSURE 1967, 201). Ultimately, structures and systems arise out of speech (spoken or written).
The scientific description of the former concepts, referred to as “system” in the following, implies abstractions from certain details of phenomena the re ← 193 | 194 → spective latter concepts aim at, which here will be referred to as “speech”. Langue was a social product for de Saussure. Chomsky focused on an “idealised speaker / hearer”, in particular their “mental” or “cognitive representation”. In both cases, the abstraction is a generalisation about individuals that is not...
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