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Trasjanka und Suržyk – gemischte weißrussisch-russische und ukrainisch-russische Rede

Sprachlicher Inzest in Weißrussland und der Ukraine?

Gerd Hentschel, Oleksandr Taranenko and Siarhej Zaprudski

Weißrussland und die Ukraine gelten als zweisprachig. Millionen von Menschen in beiden Ländern sprechen aber oft weder Weißrussisch bzw. Ukrainisch noch Russisch in Reinform. Vielmehr praktizieren sie eine gemischte weißrussisch-russische bzw. ukrainisch-russische Rede. Diese Mischungen aus genetisch eng verwandten Sprachen werden in Weißrussland Trasjanka und in der Ukraine Suržyk genannt. Der bekannte ukrainische Schriftsteller Jurij Andruchovyč hat das Phänomen in seiner Heimat als Blutschandekind des Bilingualismus angesprochen, also eine Metapher des Inzests kreiert. Darin klingt die verbreitete negative Bewertung der Sprachmischung an. Ihr ist der Band gewidmet. Er umfasst Beiträge von Autoren aus Weißrussland und der Ukraine sowie aus sieben anderen Ländern.
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On the systemicity of Belarusian-Russian Mixed Speech: the redistribution of Belarusian and Russian variants of functional words


Gerd Hentschel

1.1.Conceptual background

A dichotomous perspective2 on language (as on separate languages) has, at the latest, been established since Ferdinand de Saussure’s distinction between langue and parole. Closely related to this conceptual pair are others, such as linguistic structure and speech act, speech possession and speech, system and text, schema and usage and last, but not least, Chomsky’s competence and performance. All these dichotomies share the understanding that in a strictly synchronic view, the first term determines (together with other things, for example, intellectual capacities or mental state of the speaker or writer) the second. Think of de Saussure’s famous comparison of the system chess, i.e. its rules and both qualitatively and quantitatively differentiated pieces, with its infinite number of individual moves, as being equivalent to speech. However, de Saussure also considered, with a diachronic view, the influence of parole on langue – no innovation enters language without having first been tried out in speech (DE SAUSSURE 1967, 201). Ultimately, structures and systems arise out of speech (spoken or written).

The scientific description of the former concepts, referred to as “system” in the following, implies abstractions from certain details of phenomena the re ← 193 | 194 → spective latter concepts aim at, which here will be referred to as “speech”. Langue was a social product for de Saussure. Chomsky focused on an “idealised speaker / hearer”, in particular their “mental” or “cognitive representation”. In both cases, the abstraction is a generalisation about individuals that is not...

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