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Trasjanka und Suržyk – gemischte weißrussisch-russische und ukrainisch-russische Rede

Sprachlicher Inzest in Weißrussland und der Ukraine?

Edited By Gerd Hentschel, Oleksandr Taranenko and Siarhej Zaprudski

Weißrussland und die Ukraine gelten als zweisprachig. Millionen von Menschen in beiden Ländern sprechen aber oft weder Weißrussisch bzw. Ukrainisch noch Russisch in Reinform. Vielmehr praktizieren sie eine gemischte weißrussisch-russische bzw. ukrainisch-russische Rede. Diese Mischungen aus genetisch eng verwandten Sprachen werden in Weißrussland Trasjanka und in der Ukraine Suržyk genannt. Der bekannte ukrainische Schriftsteller Jurij Andruchovyč hat das Phänomen in seiner Heimat als Blutschandekind des Bilingualismus angesprochen, also eine Metapher des Inzests kreiert. Darin klingt die verbreitete negative Bewertung der Sprachmischung an. Ihr ist der Band gewidmet. Er umfasst Beiträge von Autoren aus Weißrussland und der Ukraine sowie aus sieben anderen Ländern.
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Morphological hybrids: Belarusian-Russian word forms in Belarusian Trasjanka


Sviatlana Tesch

Long term contact between two closely related languages can result in a specific form of code switching or code mixing. MUYSKEN (2000, 122‐154) calls this contact phenomenon “congruent lexicalization”1. One of the characteristics of this type of mixing is the possibility of a “change of codes” or, better, the presence of linguistic signs from two donor codes even within the boundaries of a word or word form (ibid., 129). Belarusian and Russian are known to be very closely related and structurally similar languages. For this reason, it is logical to ask to what extent morphological hybrids may be found in Trasjanka, i.e. either derivationally (or perhaps compositionally) complex words or word forms (inflectional forms), in which one morph may be described as Belarusian and another as Russian.

The following results are based on part of the Oldenburg Corpus of Belarusian-Russian Mixed Speech, which contains recorded conversations in families. The part of the corpus studied contains 14,000 hybrid utterances (complete or incomplete) with ca. 103,000 word forms (cf. HENTSCHEL, ZELLER & TESCH 2014 for a full description of the corpus).

All of the material in the Oldenburg Trasjanka Corpus is stored in a relational data bank. The first important step of the classification is the morphological analysis of each individual word form. Firstly, the part of speech, and secondly, the pertinent grammatical values (i.e. case, number, gender for nouns, adjectives and pronouns, or tense, number, person, gender, and mode...

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