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Categorization in Discourse and Grammar


Edited By Małgorzata Fabiszak, Karolina Krawczak and Katarzyna Rokoszewska

This collection of papers addresses new trends in Cognitive Linguistics. Three parts of the book focus on Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Integration Network Analysis. Both the theoretical contributions and the empirical case studies stress the importance of contextual factors in the meaning making processes. They employ qualitative methods to analyze the use of metaphor in political discourse and in the conceptualization of emotions. The data sets include multimodal data, sign languages and co-speech gestures. The fourth part of the book contains two corpus-based studies. The fifth part concentrates on the grammatical categories of passive voice and aspect. One contribution discusses the problem of categorization in phonology.
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Contextual Factors in Metaphor Creation in Discourse


A missing element of metaphor production and metaphorical meaning making in general in cognitive linguistics is context. I suggest that an account of metaphor production in context must begin with a general characterization of communication and, within that, metaphorical communication. The crucial elements of this include the notions of relevant context, referential scene, joint attention, joint action, and common ground, as proposed by a number of scholars in the past decade or so. I will point out the significance of these notions for a theory of metaphor creation in context. In addition, I will propose a dozen or so commonly occurring contextual factors that seem to play a role in the creation of metaphors in real discourse. These contextual factors can be grouped into four larger types: situational, linguistic, conceptual-cognitive, and bodily factors. The contextual factors can be arranged along a gradient: the local to global context. The reconceptualization of the nature and role of context in metaphor creation is intended to improve and enrich existing versions of conceptual metaphor theory.

1.  Introduction

Conceptual metaphors are defined as sets of mappings between a concrete source domain and an abstract target domain. The mappings are conceptual correspondences between elements of the source and those of the target. Linguistic expressions make these correspondences manifest in language, and the meaning of the expressions is based on the particular mappings. By their nature, the systematic mappings form a part of the conceptual system. The central cases of these...

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