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Categorization in Discourse and Grammar

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Edited By Małgorzata Fabiszak, Karolina Krawczak and Katarzyna Rokoszewska

This collection of papers addresses new trends in Cognitive Linguistics. Three parts of the book focus on Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Integration Network Analysis. Both the theoretical contributions and the empirical case studies stress the importance of contextual factors in the meaning making processes. They employ qualitative methods to analyze the use of metaphor in political discourse and in the conceptualization of emotions. The data sets include multimodal data, sign languages and co-speech gestures. The fourth part of the book contains two corpus-based studies. The fifth part concentrates on the grammatical categories of passive voice and aspect. One contribution discusses the problem of categorization in phonology.
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Metaphors in the Speech of Children with Language Impairment

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The author reports the results of her research into the way in which children with cleft lip and cleft palate as well as children without any developmental disorder use metaphors. The study deals with the ways the young participants understand and create metaphors. This was assessed with the use of an original research tool created for the sake of the study. The analysis proved that children at the age of 6–7 and 9–10 with language impairment displayed worse linguistic performance than the control group. The obtained results may suggest additional aims in the speech therapy of children with cleft lip and palate.

1.  Introduction

Using metaphors (i.e. creating and understanding them) is an important aspect of language performance. Whenever it is not possible to render the intended meaning in the communication by means of language, one may take advantage of this extraordinary tool to interpret the world. The issue of the meaning of metaphors (here understood not as rhetorical terms but tools serving to learn more about the world) was addressed by many authors (Lakoff & Johnson 1988; Lakoff & Turner 1989; Jäkel 2003).

Taking into consideration the process of the emergence of a metaphor, the internalization of linguistic symbols seems to be vital, as only internalized symbols may be compared, juxtaposed, manipulated, and transformed, which in result provides a new view on phenomena and objects reflected by metaphors. Lakoff and Johnson, the creators of the concept of the...

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