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Empirical Methods in Language Studies


Edited By Krzysztof Kosecki and Janusz Badio

«Empirical Methods in Language Studies» presents 22 papers employing a broad range of empirical methods in the analysis of various aspects of language and communication. The individual texts offer contributions to the description of conceptual strategies, syntax, semantics, non-verbal communication, language learning, discourse, and literature.
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‘Shuttle’ methods in the analysis of metaphor in English philosophical discourse


Abstract: Metaphor in common language has been given extensive elucidation, while metaphor in philosophical discourse still remains outside much linguistic research and needs special interpretation. Philosophical texts abound with conceptual metaphors, though the amounts differ depending on individual styles. This corpus is mostly represented by non-signaled metaphorically-used words. The data was collected following an identification procedure as defined by the Pragglejaz Group and analyzed with a number of instruments under the umbrella name of ‘Shuttle’ methods, implying a significant degree of multiple cross-domain mapping. The study contributes to a better understanding of the lingual nature of metaphor as a tool of philosophical reflection.

Keywords: metaphor, types of metaphors, identification of metaphor, function of metaphor in philosophical discourse, cross-mapping.

1. Introduction

There is a well-known dictum of F. Nietzsche’s “every word is a prejudice” (Nietzsche, 2001). It expresses the pursuit of absolute knowledge alongside a lack of faith in the heuristic abilities of language due to its metaphorical power allegedly preventing statements from being true. This position is still shared by many philosophers and linguists. The purpose of my research work is to examine both the abovementioned and contrary approaches, and through the development of position examined in this paper, substantiate a reliable identification procedure for metaphors in philosophical discourse per se, as well as address the nature, place and functions of metaphor in English-speaking philosophical discourse. The research corpus was the metaphors offered by textual material. I analyzed the texts written by...

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