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Narrating North American Borderlands

Thomas King, Howard F. Mosher and Jim Lynch

Series:

Evelyn P. Mayer

The study centers on the presentation of the North American borderlands in the works of Canadian Native writer Thomas King’s Truth & Bright Water (1999), American writer Howard Frank Mosher’s On Kingdom Mountain (2007), and American writer Jim Lynch’s Border Songs (2009). The three authors describe the peoples and places in the northeastern, middle and northwestern border regions of the USA and Canada. The novels address important border-oriented aspects such as indigeneity, the borderlands as historic territory and as utopian space, border crossing and transcendence, post-9/11 security issues, social interaction along the border, and gender specifics. The interpretation also examines the meaning of border imaginaries, border conceptualizations, and the theme of resistance and subversion.
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8 Index

8   Index

Abenaki, 115, 120, 126, 127, 140, 142, 14344, 147, 151, 152, 153, 155

abolition of slavery, 131, 141, 145

abolitionists, 133, 154

aboriginality, 49, see also indigeneity

activism, 107

Adorno, Theodor W., 104

African Americans, 11315, 117, 131, 133, 137, 139, 14042, 145, 149, 154

agency, 29, 39, 41, 61, 91, 101, 143

Akwesasne, 20, 36, 174

Alberta, 20, 65, 68, 71, 84, 85

Alberta-Montana borderlands, 65, 6869, 84

Alper, Donald K., 41

American Civil War, 115, 116, 131, 137, 140, 145, 149

American Indians, 23, 48, 61, 68, see also Indians

American Indian Studies, 48

American Revolution, 42

American Studies, 23, 28, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 50, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 68, 197, see also North American Studies and Transnational American Studies

Anderson, Benedict, 16, 40, 89

Andrews, Jennifer, 50, 6772, 75, 76, 8687, 98, 99, 106

Anzaldúa, Gloria, 37, 58

appropriation, 53; reappropriation, 50, 103, 120

arbitrariness, 14, 69, 80, 81, 158, 167, 168, 174, 195, 196, 198

artifacts, 50, 59, 79

Ashcroft, Bill, 46

assimiliation, 19, 21, 35

authenticity, 66, 87, 88, 90, 104, 144

autonomy, 35, 36, 82, see also sovereignty

Baldwin, James, 114

barnstormers, 128, 131

belonging, 17, 41, 42, 42, 51, 68, 98, 108, 111, 115, 116, 121, 126, 130, 133, 136, 138, 140, 146, 149, 159, 165, 179, 200

bentwood box, 85, 105

“betwixt and between,” 19, 99, 188, see also Turner, Victor

beyond, notion of, 5, 13, 16, 19, 24, 25, 30, 40, 44, 56, 60, 62, 197

Bhabha, Homi K., 20, 28, 2930, 45, 70, 124, 156, 189, see also Third Space

Bible, King James, 117, 119, 120, 122, 127, 146

binaries, going beyond border, 25, 32, 37, 40, 56, 68, see also dichotomies

birding, 22, 158, 161, 163, 164, 16669, 171, 189, 19194, 197

birds, migratory, 18992

bird trope, 19, 193, 195, 197

Blacks, 132, 137, 142

“Black Atlantic,” 28, 35, 45, 58, see also Gilroy

Blackfoot, 20, 36, 84, 85, 92

blackness, 141, 142

Blaine, WA, U.S., 20, 36, 158, 159, 160, 192, 199 ← 219 | 220 →

blood quantum, 50, 142

border, Canada-U.S., 1317, 1922, 24, 27, 28, 31, 32, 3438, 40, 42, 48, 62, 63, 66, 68, 69, 74, 81, 148, 150, 159, 161, 168, 172, 176, 178, 18086, 188, 189, 191, 196, 198, 199

border, U.S.-Mexico, 30, 32, 37

Border Aesthetics Project, 34

broder crossings, 21, 33, 34, 38, 39, 42, 44, 50, 57, 68, 74, 75, 79, 89, 97, 142, 148, 150, 163, 188

border culture, 33, 37, 39, 175

border fiction, 23, 24, 28, 62, 63, 178, 197, 200, 201; literature, 28, 102

border management, 13, 33, 34, 187, 198, 199

border poetics, 23, 30, 33, 34, 68, 201

border regions, 14, 20, 21, 22, 29, 32, 39, 66, 88, 155; cross-border regions, 36, 160, 173, 180, 185

border studies, 23, 24, 25, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 50, 51, 52, 57, 58, 63, 68, 197, 201

border texts, 22, 63, 91, 197, 201

bordering practices, 17, 21, 22, 30, 32, 39, 106, 115, 197, 198, 200

bordering processes, 17, 30, 32, 33, 39, 42, 161, 163, 197, 200, 201

bordering studies, 30

borderlands, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 2939, 41, 43, 44, 62, 63, 65, 6870, 84, 107, 111, 113, 115, 129, 138, 151, 157, 158, 160, 177, 184, 185, 197, 198200

Borderlands Project, 37

borderscapes, 20, 23, 30, 36, 40, 41, 43, 199

boundary, 13, 1521, 25, 2932, 3437, 39, 41, 48, 49, 70, 7274, 78, 80, 81, 89, 95, 100, 104, 11315, 129, 144, 14851, 155, 158, 159, 161, 163, 166, 170, 173, 17779, 183, 185, 191, 192, 196201

Braz, Albert, 5253, 17275

British Columbia, 157, 159, 160, 171, 173, 184, 187, 197

Brunet-Jailly, Emmanuel, 33

buffaloes, 78, 86, 87, 100, 103, 106, 107, 108, 110, 112, 198

Callenbach, Ernest, 35, 15, 198, see also Ecotopia

Canada Day, 83, 84

Canadians, 18, 40, 4243, 48, 79, 80, 148, 160, 163, 173, 17476, 180, 18284, 187, 190; African, 131; Anglophone, 15, 35, 48; Francophone, 125; French, 123, 139, 148

Canadian Studies, 23, 27, 28, 44, 46, 47, 48, 51, 52, 54, 63, 201, see also Transnational Canadian Studies

Canadiana, 172

Cascadia, 22, 25, 35, 177, 179, 185, 199, see also Pacific Northwest

Caucasians, 137

CBC Massey Lectures, 66

Cherokees, 67, 84, 85, 86, 91, 102, 103, 111

citizenship, 20, 33, 37, 39, 41, 49, 67, 146, 155, 175, 190

colonialism, 21, 32, 48, 50, 65, 8, 84, 86, 100, 111, 152, 198

comparative border studies, 51, 57, 58, 201

Confederates 131, 137, see also American Civil War

Confederation, Canadian, 176

construction, 14, 17, 19, 32, 34, 40, 43, 48, 63, 70, 75, 106, 107, 114, 115, 142, 15051, 156, 173, 176, 177, 185, 196, 200–01

contact zone, 20, 32, see also Pratt ← 220 | 221 →

contraband, 19, 22, 36, 161, 166, 170, 185, 189; BC bud, 171, 173

contrapuntal concept, 62, 162, see also Said

Coupland, Douglas, 173, 179, 187

Creole, 131, 133, 136, 140, 153

critical cartography, 61

cross-border community, 75, 106, 161, 163, 164, 179, 190, 192, 196, 197, 199

cultural studies, 28, 34

Davidson, Arnold E., 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 75, 76, 8687, 98, 99, 106

debordering, 13, 21, 24, 68, 91, 115, 129, 151, 152; de/bordering, 2324, 62, 65, 69, 70, 111, 161

deconstruction, 68, 85, 92, 101

Deleuze, Gilles, 60, 72, 99, see also Guattari and rhizomes

demarcation, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 24, 31, 36, 67, 130

Derrida, Jacques 94, see also limitrophy

deterritorialization, 32

dichotomies, 38, 42, 66, 138, see also binaries

Donnan, Hastings, 23, 27, 29, 3034, 41

double consciousness, 129, 138, see also Du Bois

Du Bois, W. E. B., 129, 13032, 13738, see also double consciousness

Ecotopia, 35, 179, 185, 198, see also Callenbach

ecocide, 152

ecology, 140, 151

economy, 106, 151, 172, 182, 183, 187

Ellis Island, 135, see also Statue of Liberty

essentialism, 69

ethnic studies, 48, 138

eurocentricism, 49, 50, 61, 68, 85

Fanon, Frantz, 137

Fenians, the, 36

First Nations, Inuit, and Métis, 23, 28, 49, 8283

First World War, 18, 133, see also World War I

Fishkin, Shelley Fisher, 5, 28, 5859

Flanders Fiels, In (poem), 18, see also McCrae

fluidity, 19, 39, 68, 72, 99, 106, 107

Ford, Walton, 159, 162, 167, 193, 194

Forty-Ninth Parallel, (also 49th Parallel), 15, 35, 36, 50, 71, 76, 157, 158, 160, 177, 181, 186, see also border, Canada-U.S.

Foucault, Michel, 176, 185, see also heterotopia

Franzen, Jonathan, 19192

frontier, 31, 44, 50, 86, 89, 115, 147, 148, 17778

Frontier (movie theater), 87, 88

Frontier Thesis, 89, 107, 177, see also Turner, Frederick Jackson

Frost, Robert, 14, 16, 119

Frozen River (film), 36

FTA (Free Trade Agreement), 151

gender, 28, 45, 107, 142, 154, 169;

    gender roles, 69, 154

genocide, cultural, 21, 59, 152

geopolitics, 59, 65, 82, 146, 201

German Indianthusiasm, 91, see also Lutz

ghosts, 19, 62, 74, 86, 87, 105, 117, 121, 124, 125, 130, 131, 134, 135, 136, 140, see also tricksters

Gillman, Susan, 46, 5456

Gilroy, Paul, 28, 35, 45, see also “Black Atlantic” ← 221 | 222 →

giveaway, 85, 98, 108, 11112

globalization, 13, 22, 28, 31, 32, 38, 43, 46, 49, 52, 54, 56, 63, 116, 147, 182, 190

global village, 29, see also McLuhan

Goldsworthy, Andy, 159

Grand Trunk Railroad, 148

Great Depression, 115, 145, 149, 151

Great Lakes, 36

Griffiths, Gareth, 46

Gruber, Eva, 66, 68, 79, 82, 87, 90, 91, 101, 102

Gruesz, Kirsten Silva, 46, 5456

Grundy-Warr, Carl, 39, 41

Guattari, Félix, 60, 72, 99, see also Deleuze and rhizomes

Haida Gwaii, 82

Hamlet, 105, 125

Harlem Renaissance, 141

Haskell Free Library and Opera House, 20, 36

hegemony, 120

hemispheric studies, 45, 50, 51, 53, 68, 173

heterotopia, 176, 185, see also Foucault

history, 13, 16, 17, 21, 36, 42, 43, 47, 54, 65, 66, 69, 82, 84, 92, 96, 100, 102–03, 10910, 111, 11718, 126, 128, 129, 139, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 158, 16265, 176, 177, 181

Hobsbawm, Eric, 40, 59

homeland security, 19, 37, 177

Hoy, Helen, 74, 77

Huggan, Graham, 60

Hutcheon, Linda, 28

hybridity, 2930, 53, 113

hyperborder, 30

IBC (International Boundary Commission), 36

identities, 14, 22, 29, 32, 34, 40, 41, 43, 88, 99, 114, 116, 135, 138, 140, 142, 143, 144, 150, 154, 155, 185

identity construction, 14, 17, 19, 34, 43, 70, 115, 173, 176, 177, 196

IJC (International Joint Commission), 36

imaginaries, 25, 101, 198, 199

imagined communities, 16, 40

immigration, 13, 41, 48, 162, 166, 183, 191, illegal 148, see also migration

immobility, 158, 189

impostors, 48, 92, 127

in-between space 14, 23, 29, 32, 37, 57, 69, 70, 72, 73, 75, 86, 98, 11417, 120, 133, 145 151, 154, 156, 179, 181, 188, 189, 197, 199

Indians, 48, 66, 68, 70, 73, 78, 79, 80, 84, 93, 101, 106, 108, 126, 142, see also American Indians

indigeneity, 22, 49, 50, 68, 100, 142, 155, 198, 201, see also aboriginality

Indigenous Studies, 24, 44, 48, 63, 201, see also Native Studies

insecurity, 15, 19, 172, 176, 177, 178, 183, 184, 188

interdisciplinarity, 23, 24, 27, 31, 33, 34, 51, 63, 201

intertextuality, 85, 117, 119, 122, 193

Iroquois Confederacy, 42

Jay Treaty, 42

Jim Crow, 132

Journal of Borderlands Studies, 17, 32

Kamboureli, Smaro, 28, 46

Kaplan, Amy, 17778

King, Martin Luther, 114, 145, 149, 162

King, Thomas, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 28, 36, 48, 49, 50, 51, 65113, 155, ← 222 | 223 → 197, 198, 199, 201; “Borders” (short story), 49; “Godzilla vs. Post-Colonial,” 4850, 66, 69; Truth & Bright Water, 18, 21, 24, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 74, 76, 84, 85, 86, 87, 92, 102, 105, 106, 107, 109

Konrad, Victor, 13, 14, 19, 33, 37, 38, 42, 43, 158, 161, 185, 190, 191

Land Art, 159, 199

land claims, 14, 35, 49, 50, 68, 142, 144, 151

Lake Memphremagog, 126

Last Spike, the, 103–04

Laxer, James, 14849

Lazarus, Emma, 162, 190

Levander, Caroline F., 44, 45

Levine, Robert S., 44, 45

liminality, 20, 32, 51, 62, 7173, 93, 99, 102, 105, 107, 114, 141, 178, 188, 189, 192; liminoid 178, see also Turner, Victor

limitrophy, 94, see also Derrida

line dancing, 19, 95, 188; line dancer 41, 95, 111

Loucky, James, 41

Loyalists, 42, 149

Lundy, Derek, 21

Lutz, Hartmut, 91, see also German Indianthusiasm

Lynch, Jim, 18, 20, 21, 22, 25, 70, 15796, 197, 198, 199, 201; Border Songs, 20, 21, 25, 157, 159, 160, 162, 172, 174, 175, 177, 178, 183, 185, 187, 190, 193, 196, 197, 198

Lynden, WA, U.S., 158, 160, 179, 187, 199

Lyotard, Jean-François, 16

Maclean’s (magazine), 160, 172

Magical Realism, 23, 107, 117

Manifest Destiny, 75, 178

maps, 55, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 80, 82, 195; Deep Maps (Digital Palimpsest Mapping Projects) 59

mapping, 36, 38, 59, 60, 61, 62

marginalization, 53, 101

Martínez, Oscar J., 31

masks, 39, 40, 85, 87, 112, 13738, 139, 178

Mason-Dixon Line, 130, 131, 137, 145, 152, 154, 155

McCrae, John, 18, see also “Flanders Fields

McLuhan, Marshall, 14, 24, 29, 40, see also global village

metanarratives, 16, 19, 62, 67, 128

metaphors, 14, 17 19, 23, 29, 33, 34, 38, 40, 42, 43, 55, 62, 73, 77, 78, 79, 87, 92, 97, 99, 100, 104, 207, 112, 128, 131, 132, 138, 145, 148, 152, 154, 157, 161, 167, 172, 175, 178, 179, 184, 191, 193, 200

migration, 59, 139, 148, 150, 185, 190, see also immigration

Miki, Roy, 28, 46

minstrel show, (also minstrelsy), 132133, 137, 138

Miskowiec, Jay, 176, 185

mixed heritage, 67, 11, 117, 131, 133, 140, 141, 142, 146, 153, 154, 198

mobility, 13, 21, 22, 41, 43, 99, 143, 157, 158, 177, 178, 186, 189

monarchy, 176

Montana, 20, 65, 68, 71, 85, see also Alberta-Montana Borderlands

Montreal, 125, 129, 130, 150, 154, 155

mosaic, 47, 96

Mosher, Howard Frank, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 70, 11356, 197, 98, 199, 201; On Kingdom Mountain, 21, 24, 113, 115, 117, 120, 131, 139, 140, 145, 155, 199 ← 223 | 224 →

Mount Baker, 179

Mounties, 35, 180, 185, see also RCMP

multiculturalism, 35, 45, 47; multicultural, 19, 115, 127

Muthyala, John, 54

myth of the West, 35, 89

mythology, Greek, 67, 72, 74, 117, 130; Native, 72, 102

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), 151

narration, 66, 69, 70, 71, 77, 96, 121, 125, 128, 161

nation-states, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 21, 22, 23, 29, 31, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 43, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 56, 58, 61, 62, 67, 68, 70, 72, 78, 79, 80, 81, 103, 147, 155, 174, 177, 185, 191, 200

nationalism, 20, 31, 32, 38, 46, 47, 58, 101, 178

Natives, 22, 42, 49, 50, 51, 61, 67, 68, 7680, 82, 84, 86, 8891, 93, 95, 97, 100, 101, 103, 104, 10609, 112, 142, 144, 146, 152, 198

Native Studies, 28, 34, 44, 48, 67

New England, 14, 35, 126, 131, 148, 149, 150, 155

New York State, 21

NEXUS Program, 184

Nicol, Heather N., 13, 14, 19, 33, 37, 43, 173, 190, 191

North American Studies, 21, 24, 51, 52, 53, 201

Northeast Kingdom, 115, 130, 147, 155

Nunavut, 82

Obama, Barack, about, 58, by, 135;

    Obama Administration, 186

Ohmae, Kenichi, 13, 31

Ontario, 21, 93, 148

orientalism, 69, see Said

othering, 17, 32, 42, 43, 111, 112, 114, 115, 116, 142, 145, 177

Pacific Northwest, 14, 20, 22, 25, 36, 50, 85, 160, 182, 183, 185, 186, 187, 196, 200, see also Cascadia

palimpsests, 24, 51, 58, 59, 60, 63, 95, 96, 11112, 199, 200

pan-tribalism, 8485, 143

parallax, 24, 38, 39, 42, 43, 65, 112, 200, 201

Peace Arch, 17, 20, 36, 159, 185, 186;

“Hands Across the Border,” 20, 36, 185

Perera, Suvendrini, 34, 36, 41

permeability, 13, 21, 22, 41, 75, 157, 158, 186, 197

Pig War, 36

ports of entry, 180

Point Roberts, WA, U.S., 36

postcolonialism, 28, 43, 46, 48, 52, 60, 83, 107; postcolonial, 28, 29, 33, 45, 46, 48, 49, 52, 54, 55, 62, 83, 106, 107, 109, 112, 126, 198

postmodernism, 28, 46, 56

post-nationalism, 16, 52

potlatch, 85, 108, see also giveaway

power, 17, 18, 1922, 32, 33, 41, 54, 57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 70, 77, 82, 111, 140, 143, 152, 157, 158, 160, 167, 170, 185, 190, 191, 192

Prairies and Plains, 22, 35, 93, 197, 200

Pratt, Mary Louise, 20, 32, see also contact zone

Prohibition, 115, 145, 14950, 164, 181

Quebec, 20, 21, 22, 35, 36, 113, 115, 122, 148, 150, 151, 155, 197, 200

quilt, 18, 81, 95, 96, 97, 98, 11112, 159 ← 224 | 225 →

race, 21, 24, 45, 114, 12730, 132, 134, 135, 136, 138, 140, 14244, 155, 175

racism, 80, 128, 129, 133, 135, 138, 141, 143, 156, see also xenophobia

Rajaram, Prem Kumar, 39, 41, 43

Ranger, Terence, 40, 59

RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police), 35, 91, see also Mounties

rebordering, 13, 14, 22, 24, 25, 158, 160, 172, 175, 178, 180, 182, 188

rebranding, 176

regionalization, 13, 22, 63

relocation, 21, see also Trail of Tears

remapping, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 199

representation, 22, 27, 29, 39, 49, 60, 62, 68, 82, 91, 101, 102, 109, 114, 117, 119, 128, 150, 159, 176, 192, 199, 200

reserves, 68, 101, 152, reservations 88, 152

resistance, 25, 39, 86, 96, 100, 101, 109, 112, 173, 198, 199

rewriting, 35, 58, 62, 110, 120, 124, 145, 199

rhizomes, 42, 60, 72, 99, 100, see also Deleuze and Guattari

Ricou, Laurie, 179

Rushdie, Salman, 28, 42

Sadowski-Smith, Claudia, 28, 45, 47, 49, 52, 55, 5758

Said, Edward, 28, 45, 62, 69, 162, see also contrapuntal concept and orientalism

Salish Sea, 35, 82, 185

San Juan Islands, 36

Schimanski, Johan, 23, 33, 34

security, 15, 18, 19, 22, 30, 34, 37, 42, 48, 15860, 168, 172, 176, 177, 178, 180, 18286, 188, 191, 194, 195, 198

securitization, 161, 166, 182, 182

segregation, 101, 143, 145, 148, 154

self-identification, 88

sense of place, 42, 115, 119, 147, 155, 160, 163, 196

September 11, 2001, (also 9/11), 13, 14, 18, 22, 24, 30, 32, 37, 42, 57, 143, 172, 175, 183, 186, 198, 201

Siemerling, Winfried, 44, 5152

Sinclair, Niigonwedom James, 101

slave narratives, 149

slaves, 43, 126, 141, 142, 147, 148, 149, 154, 156; fugitive 126, 14748, 149, 154, 156

slavery, 43, 126, 131, 133, 141, 142, 145, 148

smugglers, 150, 161, 163, 164, 167, 170, 171, 176, 180, 186, 188

Sollors, Werner 114, 115, 137, 145, 149

sovereignty, 14, 22, 29, 33, 35, 39, 41, 43, 49, 50, 51, 52, 59, 67, 68, 82, 173, 192, 201, see also autonomy

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, 28, 45, 54

Stafford, William E., 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 24, 197

Statue of Liberty, 135, 162, see also Ellis Island

St. Lawrence River, 36

Stepto, Robert, 138, 139

stereotypes, 68, 77, 79, 83, 87, 88, 90, 91, 93, 101, 104, 111, 118, 126, 132, 137, 143, 144, 172, 175

storytelling, 66, 82 95, 100, 150, 153, 161

subversion, 25, 66, 69, 89, 90, 101, 117, 124, 178, 196, 198, 199

Sugars, Cynthia, 28, 36, 5455

survivance, 29, 51, 66, 98, 99, 100–01, 103, 109, 111, 120, see also Vizenor

symbolism, 68, 82, 153, see also metaphors ← 225 | 226 →

thickening, of the Canada-U.S. Border, 13, 22, 25, 37, 38, 159, 160, 172, 183, 186, 195

Third Space, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 37, 124, 146, 155, 156, 189, 197, 198, see also Bhabha

Tiffin, Helen, 46

tourists, 41, 139, 159; in King’s novel 78, 79, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93

trade, 19, 34, 37, 136, 187

Trail of Tears, 85, 86, 87, see also relocation

Transnational American Studies, 22, 23, 25, 28, 34, 44, 45, 46, 51, 55, 57

Transnational Canadian Studies, 46, 51, see also Canadian Studies

transnationalism, 28, 31, 38, 43, 44, 190

Treaty of Ghent, 42

tribes, 20, 49, 67, 70, 84, 85, 92, 126, 146, 199

tricksters, 23, 62, 66, 68, 86, 88, 90, 93, 94, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 107, 111, 112, 122, 124, 136, 167, see also ghosts

tropes, 19, 22, 23, 71, 75, 82, 94, 97, 101, 102, 104, 107, 138, 149, 161, 190, 193, 195, 196, 197

Trudeau, Pierre Elliott, 173

Turner, Frederick Jackson, 89, 107, 177, see also Frontier Thesis

Turner, Victor, 19, 99, 178, 18889, see also liminality and “betwixt and between”

turns, 23, 28, 29, 34, 44, 45

Turtle Island, 69, 74, 100, 111, 112

Underground Railroad, 43, 113, 116, 126, 131, 133, 141, 145, 148, 149, 150

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 50

University of British Columbia, 50, 169

utopian space 21, 25, 113, 115, 145, 146, 155, 156, 198

Vancouver, 50 (Art Gallery), 161, 166, 173, 179, 180 187

van Houtum, Henk, 21, 30, 31, 33, 34, 3840, 42, 5960, 6163, 95, 116, 200

van Naerssen, Ton, 21, 31, 63, 116

Vermont, 20, 21, 22, 25, 36, 113, 115, 117, 119, 122, 124, 12737, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 147, 149, 150, 151, 152, 155, 156, 183, 197, 200

Vietnam War draft resisters, 43

Vizenor, Gerald, 29, 51, 66, 99, 100–01, 102, 103, 120, see also survivance

Walton, Priscilla L., 50, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 75, 76, 8687, 98, 99, 106

War of 1812, 176

war on terror, 38, 160, 180

Washington State, 174, 179

Wastl-Walter, Doris, 23, 31

water imagery, 95, 99, 107

Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, 20, 81

Waterton Lake, 8081

Western anthropology, 69, 104

Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI), 13, 15, 42

Whites, 78, 82, 83, 84, 87, 88, 90, 108, 137, 141, 142

whiteness, 131, 140, 141, 142

White Rock, BC, Canada, 20, 36, 158, 160, 192, 199 ← 226 | 227 →

Wilson, Thomas M., 23, 27, 29, 3034, 41

wing walkers, 131

Wolfe, Stephen, 23, 33, 34

“worlding,” notion of, 24, 51, 5456, 201

World War I, 18, 131, see also First World War

xenophobia, 129, 135, see also racism

Yankee, 14042