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Journalism in Change

Journalistic Culture in Poland, Russia and Sweden


Edited By Gunnar Nygren and Bogusława Dobek-Ostrowska

Media developments change journalism all over the world. But are the changes the same in different media systems? How is professionalization influenced by the constant growth of a network society and social media? How are commercialization and political influences in the media relating to each other? These are some of the issues discussed in this study. It is based on the research project Journalism in Change – professional journalistic cultures in Poland, Russia and Sweden. From 2011 to 2014 researchers from Sweden, Poland and Russia at Södertörn University in Stockholm have been cooperating closely in order to survey a sample of 1500 journalists and 60 in depth interviews with journalists. The results are presented in a comparative design covering different areas.
It is an unusually tightly focused volume that sheds much light on the values, roles and working conditions of these journalists in a revealing comparative perspective. It is a model of well-conceptualized and carefully conducted comparative cross-national journalism research.
David H. Weaver, Bloomington, Indiana University, USA
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Changing working conditions


Jöran Hök

4.1 An organizational approach to journalism studies

Studies of working conditions are vital while researching preconditions for journalism and changes within the profession. Studies of this kind are important as they identify the fundamental daily conditions under which news is produced.

Studying working conditions is part of an organizational approach to journalism. The concept is often related to collective relations as employment conditions, arrangements within a profession that are regulated in a contract between employer and employees or in agreements between unions and companies. On the individual level an organizational approach focuses on:

“(…) mutual expectations between the individual and the organization, ranging from hard facts, such as salary, to softer criteria, such as job satisfaction” (Altmeppen, 2008:53).

Organizational studies of working conditions focus on the number of staff, necessary skills, working-hours, numbers of assignments during a working period (production pace) and job-security. But the concept should also be related to a working culture in a broader sense, including such vital professional conceptions as space for creativity and other aspects of perceived quality in the work place.

This chapter compares five aspects of changes of working conditions as perceived by the individual journalist in the three states:

4.1.1 Changes in size of workforce

Changes in the size of journalistic workplaces in each country give valuable information of whether a profession is expanding or contracting. Usually expanding professions increase...

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