A Case Study of Kurdish-German Pre-school Bilingual Children
9. Constraints on Kurdish-German CS data
This chapter shall present further analysis on the collected data. The collected data will be discussed with respect to the main linguistic constraints and the hypothesis of the MLF model that have been proposed to account for the occurrence of code-switched utterances.
9.1. Universal constraints
9.1.1. The free morpheme constraint
This constraint is based on the distinction between bound and free morphemes. In addition to what has been discussed in (184.108.40.206), Poplack (2000: 222) stresses that the free morpheme constraint suggests that “switches should not occur across a morpheme boundary where a morpheme appears at the end of a multiword fragment in the other language”.
However, in the data of this study a lot of number of switches can be observed that clearly violate the free morpheme constraint. Quite on the opposite to Poplack’s case study where she found no examples of switches occurred between bound morphemes and free morphemes, mentioned in (220.127.116.11), in the data of this study the majority of switches consist of German bound morphemes in combination with Kurdish free morphemes. ← 97 | 98 →
Figure 3: The Free Morpheme Constrain
Figure 3 shows the number of counterexamples to the free morpheme constraint in the data. This number also includes the data which have been produced by the non-target subjects of the observation, namely parents and adults whose interactions with the children were also tape-recorded.
As can be seen in figure 3, more...
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