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Classroom Struggle

Organizing Elementary School Teaching in the 19th Century


Edited By Marcelo Caruso

During the institutionalization of mass schooling in the 19 th century, teaching large groups of children became both a necessity and a matter of regulation. For officials and inspectors the systematization of classroom interactions was important for effective results. However, while systematization could bring about the constant attention of children and their uninterrupted work, interactions themselves were difficult to control. Rationalized models of classroom organization provided alternatives for managing large groups before age grading became the dominant pattern of organizing interactions. The contributions in this volume explore diverse paths of transition towards modern classroom organization in different countries, allowing transnational perspectives and comparisons.
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Table of Contents



Marcelo Caruso

Classroom Struggle: Organizing Elementary Teaching in the 19th Century

Struggling with Political and Economic Contexts

Niels Reeh/Jesper Eckhardt Larsen

From Competing Technologies of Mass Schooling to the Spiritual Enlightenment of the Nation: The Reception of the Monitorial System of Education in Denmark 1814–1849

Andrés Baeza

Educational Reform, Political Change, and Penury: Primary Schooling and the Monitorial System of Education in Chile, approx. 1810–1833

Frank Simon/Christian Vreugde/Marc Depaepe

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