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Rewriting Academia

The Development of the Anglicist Women’s and Gender Studies of Continental Europe

Edited By Renate Haas

From a historical perspective, the full academic establishment of Women’s and Gender Studies is a radical and far-reaching innovation. Decisive impulses have come from the United States, the European unification and globalization. European Women’s and Gender Studies are therefore intimately linked to the English language and Anglophone cultures, as the near untranslatability of «gender» shows. In this volume 25 experts present surveys for their countries with a historical and European contextualization and offer fundamental insights not only for English Studies but also various other disciplines.
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Moderate Finnish Feminism: From a Struggle for Equality in the Welfare State to Diverse and Established Gender Studies

Elina Valovirta / Joel Kuortti

Moderate Finnish Feminism: From a Struggle for Equality in the Welfare State to Diverse and Established Gender Studies

1.  Introduction: English Studies in Finland

There are eight departments of English in the Finnish universities, with a variety of designations and organizational structures. These are in the University of Eastern Finland (Joensuu campus), University of Helsinki, University of Jyväskylä, University of Oulu, University of Tampere, University of Turku, University of Vaasa, and the Swedish language Åbo Akademi University in Turku. In this article, the units are referred to as departments, except when they are introduced.

Apart from universities, there used to be language institutes – in Kouvola, Savonlinna, Tampere and Turku – that trained translators and interpreters. In 1981 their functions were transferred to the state and subsequently incorporated into universities – Kouvola to Helsinki, Savonlinna to Joensuu, and Tampere and Turku to the respective universities. This coincides with the worldwide expansion of Translation Studies since the 1980s. There are, however, rather few Gender Studies topics in Translation Studies so far which show in the outline. On top of this, one could point out that related matters have been researched, for example, in the departments of Comparative Literature (or equivalent), but these will not be discussed here. The same goes for the various institutions for advanced studies where English Studies may be represented: Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, Tampere Institute for Advanced Social Research (IASR), and Turku Institute for Advanced Studies.

In the following, we present first a general outline of Gender Studies in Finland, and then the various strands of Gender Studies within English Studies. While the scholars are mentioned in relation to one particular university, there has been considerable mobility and their individual research may have been conducted under some other institution. ← 247 | 248 →

We would like to thank several colleagues for providing vital information on their respective departments: Jopi Nyman (UEF), Anna Solin (Helsinki), Sirpa Leppänen (Jyväskylä), Tiina Keisanen (Oulu), Jukka Tyrkkö (Tampere), Tiina Mäntymäki (Vaasa), Brita Wårvik (Åbo), and finally Marianne Liljeström (Gender Studies in Finland).

2.  Gender Studies in Finland

Gender Studies in Finland is a highly institutionalized field of academic inquiry, with departments in eight of the fourteen Finnish universities: Eastern Finland, Helsinki, Jyväskylä, Lapland, Oulu, Tampere, Turku and Åbo Akademi. (As it happens seven of these also host English Studies, with the exception of the University of Lapland.) Academic feminism in Finland has its early historical roots in the Nordic branch of equality feminism, whose main objective was to create a welfare state by legislative reforms seen as the ideal route to emancipation and equality. The historical procession to this can be seen in the relatively unsegregated division of labour in the rural agricultural society, and early granting of universal suffrage to women as the first country in Europe in 1906, resulting in the first female Members of Parliament (altogether nineteen) in the world in the 1907 parliamentary elections. Women’s and Gender Studies began to establish itself on the level of tertiary education in the 1980s and the 1990s, when most universities with a Gender Studies programme today began to offer a modest syllabus of courses in what was then called Women’s Studies. Eventually, in the 2000s, the status of a major subject was granted, resulting in a number of degree programmes in Finnish universities. In the past few years, Women’s Studies departments have changed their names to Gender Studies, which is the term now in use for the field in Finland. Within the field of English Studies, however, Gender Studies topics are the sole effort of certain individual scholars, who attempt to incorporate the two fields in their teaching and research praxes.

2.1  General Situation and Glimpses from History

There is a long-persisting national fantasy of Finland as a ‘woman-friendly’ welfare state (Kuusipalo 2011: 52), with a high level of equality and an equal distribution of power between the sexes. The primary historical ← 248 | 249 → narrative of Finnish gender relations is that of companionship and a shared process of survival between men and women as a result of first, the Swedish and Russian rules (approximately 1200s to 1809 and 1809–1917, respectively) resulting in Finnish independence in 1917. Second, the independence-preserving wars in the 1940s played a similar role in reproducing the idea of men and women’s shared national struggle, resulting in an essentialized view of equality as sameness and gender-neutrality, thus glossing over and ignoring gender differences, a condition known as gender blindness (Liljeström 2011). In Finnish equality discussions, a specific woman-centred culture or way of thinking has never been a priority, but, rather, women’s success and capabilities together with men have been emphasized (Lempiäinen / Leppänen / Paasonen 2012: 14).

Women were highly involved in founding the Finnish civic society at the end of the 19th century, be it as members of religious revivalism, the temperance movement, youth associations, or the labour movement (Juvonen 2010: 258). The family unit followed the ‘natural’ division of labour with man-headed families and gender roles as complementary and the interest of the family as a shared task (ibid.). The main question regarding gender at the turn of the century was women’s right to participate in political life (ibid.), which, as mentioned above, reached a resolution with universal suffrage and first female members of parliament elected in 1906. The first female minister, Miina Sillanpää, became the Minister of Social Affairs in 1926, a watershed mark at a time when, despite their participation in politics, women’s parliamentary initiatives were often sidelined and discarded (ibid.).

Traditionally, in Finland the public sector, particularly in the form of welfare services, has played a large role in ameliorating women’s social status, particularly from two related perspectives; on the one hand, by offering women employment in the fields of social and health services as well as education, and, on the other, by enabling women’s employment by offering services such as childcare, schooling, and care for the elderly previously taken for granted to be women’s responsibility (Eräsaari 2014: 32). Due to the strong faith placed on legislation as a means to emancipation, Finnish welfare feminism has often been characterized as reformist in its preoccupation with questions of work and social welfare with a distinct lack of activist movement or radical feminist activity. For ← 249 | 250 → example, there was never a large-scale feminist movement in Finland as opposed to the rest of the Nordic countries, let alone the United States or the English-speaking world.

It was only in the 1960s that gender became politicized in Finland but only through a focus on gender roles in sociological research (Koivunen 2012: 198). An association for men and women, named Yhdistys 9, was founded in 1965, the objective of which was to change rigid gender roles in the family and social life by emphasizing that men and women are essentially similar as human beings capable of active social, political, and family lives (Juvonen 2010: 264–65). Typical of Finnish equality thinking, then, Yhdistys 9 did not advocate gender difference as the basis for equality or women’s rights. The main attention garnered by the group’s activity in women’s magazines, in particular, dealt with men and women in relationships and how to make the division of labour at home more equal (Koivunen 2012: 199).

The 1970s was a relatively inactive period in the Finnish women’s movement, relying mostly on some feminist groups by Swedish-speaking Finnish women (Taavetti 2012: 30), the small but significant language minority in Finland (around 6% of the population at the time). Finnish-speaking women in the 1970s generally organized around leftist radicalism (particularly a branch named ‘taistolaisuus’ after politician Taisto Sinisalo’s oppositional politics within the Finnish Communist Party) or political parties’ women’s divisions (Koivunen 2012: 187 & 194). The Finnish Council for Gender Equality was founded in 1972 ‘to promote gender equality in societal matters’ (Ministry of Social Affairs and Health website), and is an advisory governmental agency. In the 1980s, women began to organize together for women, no longer only for the family or together with men, and this served to expand the public image of women and gave women more space to self-define their goals – an example of which is that in 1981, lesbian women were for the first time welcomed to join the International Women’s Day march (Juvonen 2010: 271). Partially thanks to this widening view of women and womanhood, academic feminism also began to develop in Finland in the 1980s, which is the topic of the following section. ← 250 | 251 →

2.2  Women’s and Gender Studies in Finland in General

Academic feminism in Finland began to institutionalize in the latter half of the 1980s, when the discipline of Women’s Studies was established in the Finnish academia. Since then, the field has changed both as a discipline and as an academic subject of tertiary education: the range of studies on gender and sexuality has widened considerably, and teaching programmes have developed from the modest Basic Studies level (approximately 25 ECTS) to Master’s and Doctoral degree programmes starting from the mid-2000s (Liljeström 2014: 62).

Importantly, the early impetus for Women’s Studies related activity in Finland at the beginning of the 1980s came from students and scholars alike, hence resulting in the parallel development of Women’s Studies’ teaching and research (Lempiäinen 2010: 274). The first seminars and lecture series in the country were organized at the request of student activists, for example in Tampere, Turku, Helsinki and Jyväskylä, who pressured university administration to grant resources for Women’s Studies teaching (ibid.). Similarly, women scholars in the humanities and social sciences were pushing, from a feminist standpoint, for the inclusion of women as an object and subject of academic inquiry. Furthermore, the research division founded already in 1981 by TANE (The Council for Gender Equality), under the auspices of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, offered governmental support for promoting and developing Finnish Women’s Studies (TANE website).

In the mid-1980s, a group of active researchers and students, led by Päivi Setälä, succeeded in creating a module of Women’s Studies as a part of the then mandatory general education portion of the Faculty of Humanities teaching at the University of Helsinki. This module then became the basis for a separate Women’s Studies study option, and towards the 1990s at least a few credits’ worth of studies were offered in several universities throughout the country (Lempiäinen 2010: 274). A turn towards a larger degree of institutionalization occurred in 1988, when The Association for Women’s Studies in Finland was founded. The scholarly journal published by the Association, Naistutkimus – Kvinnoforskning, was founded a year later. Departments of Women’s Studies, likewise, were formed on both sides of the decade: for example, at Åbo Akademi University as early as ← 251 | 252 → 1986, University of Tampere in 1990, University of Helsinki in 1991, and University of Turku in 1995.

Together with the establishment of the National Graduate Programme in Women’s Studies in 1996 (the fruits of whose labour were picked by mainstream subject departments in the absence of the status of major subject), another crucial institutional catalyst in 1995 was the Ministry of Education and Culture’s decision to grant eight five-year professorships to Women’s Studies departments in Finland. Thanks to this contribution, many of the professorships were eventually made permanent by universities themselves, creating the possibility for long-term development of degree programmes. The turn of the millennium then saw the continued success of the institutionalization of Women’s Studies, tangible in the acquisition of the status of major subject and Master’s and Doctoral programmes. Furthermore, the Finnish University Network of Women’s Studies (Hilma) was established in 2004, and Finland has participated in Europe-wide co-operation (ATHENA) already since 1996 (Lempiäinen 2010: 276).

Currently, the main development affecting the field of Women’s Studies in Finland is the shift in terminology from Women’s to Gender Studies throughout the country in the past few years. The change began with the University of Helsinki in 2009, the rest following suit until 2014, when the newly named Association for Gender Studies in Finland changed the name of its journal to Sukupuolentutkimus – Genusforskning (Gender Studies Journal), aptly publishing the first issue under the new name as a special issue on Gender and History (1/2014).

The main directions of Gender Studies in Finland can be first characterized with an early focus in the 1980s on women in history and historical research (Aalto / Leskelä-Kärki 2014: 4), perhaps thanks to the early involvement of women in politics and public life. This focus has since shifted to a wide and varied panorama of interest difficult to capture in brief other than in general terms; from equality studies to queer theory and studies on men and masculinities. An example of the surge of interest in queer topics in the past fifteen years or so, is the journal SQS: Journal of Queer Studies in Finland, which is a ‘trilingual publication welcoming articles, commentaries, and reviews written in Finnish, Swedish, and English’, published by The Society for Queer Studies in Finland (SQS) founded in 2004 (SQS website). Furthermore, the study of equality, particularly between men ← 252 | 253 → and women in the workforce and as members of the welfare state, had an almost hegemonic status in Finland in the 1990s (see Eräsaari 2014: 32). Understandably, equality work is a large field of research, thanks to the majority of women in full-time employment in Finland compared to the rest of Europe, and women’s late retirement compared to men in Finland (Korvajärvi 2010: 185). The segregation of labour (ibid.) and unequal pay, coupled with a general Finnish reluctance to acknowledge the existence of inequality in a society which is largely seen as already having achieved equality as a status quo (Ylöstalo 2006: 17), makes the field ever-topical for research and activism.

Institutionally speaking, the varied Gender Studies departments in Finland have developed their own research profiles largely as a result of the research interests of the scholars and activists involved in establishing and developing the individual departments. Naturally, the senior positions such as professorships and senior lecturerships, have a considerable role in the profiling of research. Despite the research foci, Gender Studies departments in Finland have traditionally been very welcoming towards scholars from various mainstream departments offering pro bono research guidance, seminars, work space, and unofficial support for those scholars working on feminist or Gender Studies topics not feeling at home in their respective departments (which nevertheless collected the institutional benefits of the feminist scholars’ publications and achievements).

Despite there not perhaps being firmly established national schools or branches of feminist thought identifiable by location, it is worth mentioning just some of the departments’ individual research profiles as an example. In Helsinki, the former Christina Institute for Women’s Studies (now simply Gender Studies) became known for its focus on Philosophy, Cultural Studies, and Art History, nowadays amalgamating into a Multidisciplinary research focus (Nyqvist 2009: 14). The Unit for Gender Studies at the University of Lapland in Rovaniemi, in turn, is situated in the Faculty of Education, reflecting the focus on issues of gender and education (ULapland website). In Tampere University, Gender Studies became situated at its inception within the Faculty of Social Sciences, highlighting the strong focus of Tampere as a University specializing in the study of society, health and welfare (UTampere website). In Turku, the former Centre for Women’s Studies (now simply Gender Studies) was situated in its early days in the ← 253 | 254 → School of Arts because of the strong focus on feminist literary studies and the arts in general, but the School later expanded into the larger constellation of the School of History, Culture and Arts Studies, and all of the fields mentioned are now represented in the Turku department’s research. The country’s oldest Gender Studies establishment, the one at the Swedish- speaking Åbo Akademi University, has in recent years specialized in questions of sexual violence, aging women in the workplace, whiteness, ethnicity, and girls’ studies (Nyqvist 2009: 16).

A more comprehensive scholarly review and overview of Women’s and Gender Studies in Finland is to be expected as a result of the Academy of Finland funded research project, Timelines of Academic Feminism in Finland (TAFF) 2012–2016, led by Professor Marianne Liljeström (Gender Studies, University of Turku), who generously offered her unpublished materials including a very useful timeline, drafts, and notes, as well as general support. Liljeström’s project ‘will produce a history of Finnish academic feminism’ from a multidisciplinary perspective consisting of ‘the contextualization and historicizing of Finnish academic feminism, men’s and masculinity studies, queer studies and conceptual politics of the institutionalization of Women’s Studies in Finland’ (project website).

3.  Gender Studies in the English Departments

Finnish departments of English have not featured high in Finnish Gender Studies. While the national networks, teaching programmes and research activities of Gender Studies are prolific, this has not been the case within English Studies. There are, however, numerous researchers across the universities who have conducted research that focusses on, or combines, Gender Studies. In the curricula, then, there have been courses or modules that have either used Gender Studies methodologies, or have otherwise engaged with its themes and interests.

To sum it up, as it is not possible to offer a national outline, in the following we present examples from the Gender Studies related research from individual departments in alphabetical order. This is by necessity a sketch and does not aim at comprehensive coverage, as such information is not available – at least in a manageable form. This is particularly so when one looks at the MA theses written in English Studies. However, using the ← 254 | 255 → sources available, the theses are a useful way to evaluate interests in Gender Studies over the years.

3.1  English and Gender Studies at the University of Eastern Finland (UEF)

Organization: English Language – includes English Language and Culture & English Language and Translation in the Philosophical Faculty / School of Humanities – Joensuu campus

*Previously: University of Joensuu / School of Humanities / Foreign Languages and Translation Studies – English;

*Previously: University of Joensuu / Faculty of Humanities / Department of Foreign Languages – English, and Savonlinna School of Translation – English

In the English Studies at the University of Eastern Finland, a few people have worked in Gender Studies, especially within literary research. The main contribution is by Jopi Nyman, who in his doctoral dissertation Men Alone: Masculinity, Individualism, and Hard-Boiled Fiction (Nyman 1997) studies the genre as a representation of the ideologies of masculinity and individualism. It is the first full-length study of gender in hard-boiled fiction. Later on, Nyman has applied Gender Studies in his research project Reconstructing ‘America’: Racial, Gendered and Diasporic Identities (Academy of Finland 2004–2007) (see e.g. Nyman 2009). More recently, he has worked on gender in his Academy of Finland project Companion Animals and the Affective Turn: Reconstructing the Human-Horse Relationship in Modern Culture (CONIMAL) (2011–2015), expanding the concept of the affective turn in feminist theory towards affect in human-animal relations (see Nyman 2014, also Nyman 2001). Together with Marianne Roivas, Nyman has also written on gender in literary studies in general (Nyman / Roivas 2003).

Other scholars with interest in gender include John A. Stotesbury, who in his articles on South-African and Muslim women’s romantic literature discusses such topics as masculinity, religion and ethics (Stotesbury 2001, 2004, 2009). Pekka Kilpeläinen has worked on ‘race’ and sexuality in James Baldwin’s works (Kilpeläinen 2010), Hanna Reinikainen has published on the body and sexuality in Toni Morrison’s works (Reinikainen 2005, 2006), and Sirpa Salenius (2013) has written on female emancipation and suffrage in the travel writing of Fredrika Bremer and Alexandra Gripenberg and on ← 255 | 256 → Rose Cleveland (Salenius 2014). In linguistics, Greg Watson has cooperated on two articles on gender difference, in speech representation (Riissanen / Watson 2014), and in speech form use (Miettinen / Watson 2013).

In literature teaching the gender perspective has been most pertinent in courses on popular literature, especially crime writing, on American ethnic literature, and on post-colonial literature. The interests of supervisors are reflected in the Gender Studies topics of MA theses, and here, too the emphasis is on literary subjects. Probably the first gender approach in an MA thesis is from 1989 – a study of female characters in Charlotte Brontë’s novels – and the study of characterization remains the focus in the 1990s, with some interest in feminism and female perspective, as well as gender roles and stereotypes. After 2000, while character analyses stay along, the feminist aspect becomes more pronounced in relation to patriarchy, hardboiled detective fiction, or romantic, Victorian and Gothic literature. Discussions include Kristevan readings, gendered voice and gaze, gender performance, body, and desire. Also masculinity becomes of interest. Furthermore, the last five years have witnessed the arrival of queer studies, intersectionality and postfeminism. Within linguistics, the gender perspective has also featured in theses in the past ten years. Of special interest have been textbooks, gender differences in speech, gendered language in advertising, or sexism in language use.

3.2  English and Gender Studies at the University of Helsinki

Organization: English Philology in the Faculty of Arts / Department of Modern Languages

*Previously: Department of English

English Studies began in Helsinki in 1831 with the appointment of the lecturer, John Wellmer. The university was the only one in Finland until 1918 when Åbo Akademi was founded, followed by the establishing of the University of Turku in 1920. The first professor of English Philology was the language historian and dialectologist Uno Lindelöf, who functioned as a professor extraordinary in English from 1907 until he was appointed to the new chair in 1921. In 1901, the first woman, Hanna Maria Eugenie Lindberg (1870–1909), obtained a PhD in English Studies. Her thesis dealt ← 256 | 257 → with the concept of the shrew in English literature up to Shakespeare (Pahta 2008: 21).

Tauno Mustanoja’s critical edition of the 14th century conduct poems The Good Wife Taught Her Daughter, The Good Wyfe Wold a Pylgremage, and The Thewis of Gud Women (Mustanoja 1948) – although not as such a Gender Studies topic – is of interest because it is a rare Middle English work targeted noticeably at women, and even more exceptionally at non-aristocratic women. Furthermore, Mustanoja’s own interpretation of the author as male on the basis of assertion of female subservience merits notice here.

Helsinki’s emphasis on philological research shows also in the interests in Gender Studies. There are remarkably fewer literary subjects and noticeably more linguistic topics. One of the literary scholars in Helsinki with an interest in Gender Studies is Nely Keinänen. She has worked on Early Modern English documents (Keinänen 2004) but her major interest is in Shakespeare, whether female code-switching (Keinänen 2013) or discourses of jealousy and marital violence (Keinänen / Pakkala-Weckström 2009). Other literature people include Mark Shackleton with an interest especially in the intersection of postcoloniality and gender (Shackleton 2011) and Laurel Bush in fictional representations of academic women (Bush 1992). Päivi Kuivalainen’s (2005) study on linguistic markers of subjectivity in women writers, then, is a cross-over of linguistics and literary study.

On the linguistics side, Terttu Nevalainen has studied the development of English and gender differences (Nevalainen 2000), gender stereotypes in Late Modern English (Nevalainen 2006), and co-edited a book on gender in grammar and cognition (Unterbeck et. al. 2000). Irma Taavitsainen has published on gendered compliments with Andreas H. Jucker (Taavitsainen / Jucker 2008), and historical gender-based variation has been studied by Anneli Meurman-Solin (2005) and Turo Vartiainen, Tanja Säily and Mikko Hakala (2013). Yet another historical gender aspect is provided by Alaric Hall in his studies on elves in Anglo-Saxon England (Hall 2007). Elizabeth Peterson’s interests, then, are in discourse pragmatics and she teaches the Language and Gender course. Her focus is on variation and especially politeness (Peterson 2004, 2008).

The information here on MA theses in Helsinki is quite partial but it shows similar tendencies as in other departments: gender topics relate to the ← 257 | 258 → interests of the staff and the variety increases over time: from pragmatics to gendered conversation, from gender and dialectal variation to gender in travel brochures, from classroom proficiency to EFL teaching, from discourse to forms of address. What is peculiar on the basis of material available: there seems to be markedly more literary interest in Gender Studies in theses than in research publications. Sexuality, characterization, gender roles, intersectionality, cross-dressing, Shakespeare studies, children’s and adolescent literature, and gender performance feature in students’ works.

3.3  English and Gender Studies at the University of Jyväskylä

Organization: English section in the Faculty of Humanities / Department of Languages

*Previously: Department of English

Jyväskylä is strong on applied linguistics but Gender Studies have not been in the focus there, with a handful of scholars working on gender. With intersectionality, gender is currently emerging more broadly in Jyväskylä. One of the researchers in the field is Sirpa Leppänen, whose interests are especially in identification and disidentification, particularly focussing on intersections of gender, sexuality, ethnicity and class on superdiverse social media (Leppänen, forthcoming). Earlier, she has analysed fan fiction from the perspective of gender and sexuality (Leppänen 2008). She also collaborates with Mia Halonen on gendered, sexualized and class-based performance in social media (Halonen / Leppänen, in preparation).

Furthermore, a few notable doctoral dissertations have been completed in recent years. Saara Jäntti studied women’s writing on madness (2012), Sanna Lehtonen discussed gender in children’s fantasy literature (2010) and Piia Varis considered the interplay between national and gender identity (2009). Jäntti has continued on home blogs with Suvi Järvinen (Jäntti / Järvinen 2014), and is currently involved in ethnographic study of drama therapy in the rehabilitation of mental health patients (see Jäntti 2006). Lehtonen (2012, 2013) has further developed her ideas about invisibility and transformation, and is currently working on masculinities and gender transgression in fan culture. While Samu Kytölä excludes the gender (and age) dimension from his doctoral dissertation (Kytölä 2013: 61–67), in his current interests he moves towards language and sexuality. ← 258 | 259 →

Considering the past brevity of research output in Gender Studies in English Studies, Jyväskylä has produced a considerable number of gender-related MA theses. This might be a swayed perception – which does not diminish the achievement – as it is based on a very clear list of theses until 2012, categorized by their topic, gender included. Had other units comparable lists, their output might look different. Be it as it may, there are 94 such theses from 1972 to 2014 – 62 under literature and 32 in linguistics. From the 1970s to the early 1990s the focus in the literary topics is on characterization and the social roles and experiences, and in linguistic topics on gender representation and differences. From the mid-1990s the variety of interests increases to include feminist analysis, identity construction, masculinity, intersectionality, and agency. It is worth noting that only in five of the theses was there a male author (some had two authors, either male or female). Gender Studies itself is often thus gendered.

3.4  English and Gender Studies at the University of Oulu

Organization: English Philology in the Faculty of Humanities

*Previously: Department of English

At the moment there is no-one in Oulu working on gender-related topics. Of the former faculty, for example Paul McIlvenny – since 1998 in Aalborg – worked on themes of masculinity and disability (1997), and later on gender and sexuality (2003).

Even if gender research has not been strong in Oulu, students have been interested in gender themes. The twenty-five theses in the field – evenly spread between literary and linguistic approaches – were first on questions of women’s liberation, gender differences in speech and language learning, and in the 1990s feminist literary interests emerged. Special emphasis was on masculinity and sexism, on which there were several works. In the following years, questions of representation were raised, followed by hegemonic masculinity and gender performativity, and the issue of power. It is positively surprising that one out of four of the theses have male authors. This is extraordinary among English departments where male students are a minority, and their interest is not directed towards gender issues. ← 259 | 260 →

3.5  English and Gender Studies at the University of Tampere

Organization: Degree Programme in English Language, Literature and Translation in the School of Language, Translation and Literary Studies

*Previously: English Philology, Multilingual Communication and Translation Studies / Translation Studies (English) in the School of Modern Languages and Translation Studies

*Previously: Department of English, and Department of Translation Studies in the Department of Philology I

Gender Studies is represented in the department of English in Tampere especially through a couple of relevant doctoral dissertations. Maarit Piipponen (2000) has studied gender in the context of Patricia Cornwell's serial murder fiction, although currently she works on American detective fiction and the question of the Chinese. Mervi Miettinen, then, whose doctoral work was on American geopolitics of superhero comics (2012b), has moved into Gender Studies in her analyses of Alan Moore’s work, whether love, sexuality, death and power (2012a) or deconstructed masculinity (2014). Pirjo Koivuvaara (2012) has analysed gender and class in relation to hunger and consumption. Furthermore, Merja Kaipiainen (2001) has looked at feminine modernity and Virginia Woolf in her licentiate thesis, Matti Savolainen (2005) has written on gender performance, and Yvonne Hyrynen (1996) has edited conference proceedings on gender and voice.

Even if research on gender has not been very intense in Tampere, there has been an interest in feminist analysis, women’s writing and gender at least since the mid-1970s, which shows in the number and variety of MA theses. About ten percent of the theses are on linguistic topics, the rest deal with literature. Linguistic concerns have been on differences between male and female language – linguistic sexism, gender strategies, language and power, conversational dominance – and representation of gender in textbooks, advertisements, school, or dictionaries.

In the literary field, studies on women’s writing – language, style, characterization – and representation of women are the most popular issues until the early 1990s, with few works on feminism or sexuality. After that, identity and masculinity emerge as common themes, diversified with female experience, gender roles, pornography, social subversion, androgyny, and gender and the body. In the 2000s, on top of the earlier subjects the ← 260 | 261 → variation widens to include topics such as gender and the colonial experience, intersectionality, representation of gender in popular music, queer studies, voice, third wave feminism, and Womanism.

3.6  English and Gender Studies at the University of Turku

Organization: Department of English in the Faculty of Humanities / School of Languages and Translation Studies

*Previously: School of English – Department of English, and Department of English Translation and Interpreting

In Turku, teaching of English began as early as 1926, and English has had full status of major subject since 1946. The data available on MA theses dates the early interest in women’s writing in the Department of English to the mid-1950s. In research, then, John Skinner has written about illusions of romance in Anita Brookner (1992), Tobias Smollett’s constructions of femininity (1996), and in his analysis of eighteenth-century fiction, he considers at length the discursive practices of genre and gender (2001). Focussing especially on sexuality, Gerald Doherty has written on the erotics of D. H. Lawrence (1999), sex and Buddhism in Lawrence (2001), and on desire and masturbation in James Joyce (2008). Furthermore, Lydia Kokkola, currently in Luleå University of Technology, has worked on gender and sexuality in contemporary adolescent literature (2011).

However, the more intensive Gender Studies approach was introduced through Elina Valovirta, who since her MA thesis on postcolonial écriture féminine (2001) has consistently worked on gender. Beside Valovirta’s doctoral dissertation in 2010 on a reader-theoretical model for approaching Anglophone Caribbean women’s writing through affects, emotions, and feelings related to sexuality (Valovirta 2014), her interests have been postcolonial feminist reader theory (2004), affective feminist reader theory (2006), reparative practice and the hyper-sexual and the asexual woman (2008), ethics of empathy and reading (2010a), cross-border politics of difference (2010b), shame and intimacy (2013c), healing men (2013a) and masculinity (2013b).

Another researcher with focus on gender is Joel Kuortti. Kuortti’s main research interest is in Indian English writing, within which he has considered feminism in the Indian context, published a historical bibliography on ← 261 | 262 → women’s writing (2002), a book of interviews (2003) and an anthology on Indian women’s short fiction (Kuortti / Mittapalli 2007). He has also published articles in the field, for example on Arundhati Roy (Kuortti 2008). Kuortti has further analysed diasporic Indian literature (2005b), especially how the diaspora reshapes the host culture (2007), and the multicultural feminist detective fiction (2005a). Moreover, Minna Niemi has written on transnational feminism (2003) and the intersectionality of ‘race’, class and gender (2005).

With regard to the MA theses, until the end of the 1960s, the focus was on characterization and characteristics of such classic authors as Virginia Woolf, Jane Austen, Charlotte Brontë, Emily Brontë, Emily Dickinson, Kathrine Mansfield, and George Eliot. The 1970s saw the emergence of emotions, social issues such as marriage and women’s status, and representation of women – and also first studies on contemporary women writers such as Agatha Christie, Muriel Spark and Sylvia Plath. From 1980 onward, there are studies on gendered language and sexuality, as well as the first study on representations of men. Also first linguistic theses on women-related vocabulary and gendered language appear in the late 1980s. The first theses on identity and feminism, then, are from the 1990s. Since 2000, body, transgression and corporeality surface as topical issues, just like the intersectional questions of gender and ethnicity or gender and nationality, and queer studies.

In linguistics, gender was only a marginal topic until 2003 but it has since become quite popular with theses on topics like gender in newspapers, magazines, advertising, textbooks, Finnish schlagers, television, and language learning. It is noteworthy that also within Translation Studies there has been interest in gender since 1990. The topics range from sex-role stereotyping to representations of gender and from gendered language to feminist translation.

3.7  English and Gender Studies at the University of Vaasa

Organization: Unit of English Studies in the Faculty of Philosophy / Languages and Communication

*Previously: Faculty of Humanities / Department of English ← 262 | 263 →

English in Vaasa was originally in a supporting role to other subjects, but it developed into an independent unit when the institution received the status of University in 1991. The English unit has some people with an interest in gender, and the focus is strengthening with current projects. Especially Tiina Mäntymäki has worked on gender with issues such as resistance (2009), agency (2013), and violent women (2014). Furthermore, she directed an international book project on female deviancy with several researchers (e.g. Marinella Rodi-Risberg, Wang Lei and Gerald Porter) (Mäntymäki / Rodi-Risberg / Foka 2014).

In their doctoral dissertations, Galina Dubova and Wang Lei discuss gender, whether the stereotype of Russia as feminine (Dubova 2010) or the trauma of slavery in terms of slavery (Wang 2011). Marianna Rodi-Risberg (2010), then, considered trauma as a gendered experience. Gerald Porter’s (1992) doctoral dissertation on The English Occupational Song discusses the travesty ballads from the point of view of gender construction and transgressing racial, class and gender boundaries. Furthermore, Deborah Ruuskanen (1998) and Sirkku Aaltonen (2010) have discussed the problem of gender in translation and Maj-Britt Höglund (2007) has confronted the ‘Cosmo girl’ phenomenon and how the focus on individualism may undermine solidarity between women – there is an awareness of earlier feminist struggles but current understanding of feminism is individual choice.

There are also doctoral candidates who work on topics such as Critical Studies on men and masculinities (Harri Salovaara), feminist theory in the representation of contemporary female folk singers (Noora Karjalainen), queer theory in relation to the Riot Grrrls movement (Susanna Rönn), and feminist appropriations of the Little Red Riding Hood stories (Carola Wide). In MA theses gender features only in the late 1990s with topics like feminist analysis, queer studies, representation of women, gender differences, female subjectivity, gender performance, gendered violence, and intersectionality.

3.8  English and Gender Studies at the Åbo Akademi University

Organization: Department of English Language and Literature in the Division for Arts, Education and Theology / Faculty of Arts ← 263 | 264 →

Despite its relatively small size, the Department of English at Åbo Akademi University has supported Gender Studies at all levels from undergraduate assignments to doctoral research over a substantial period of time. Among literary researchers, Maria Olaussen has written on subjectivity in Bessie Head (1997) and on feminist criticism (1992), Iris Lindahl-Raittila has worked on images of Sylvia Plath (2002), Katja Brandt has ventured a feminist recontextualization of Christina Rossetti’s poetry (2006) and Maria Lassén-Seger has studied gender transformation and transgression in children’s literature (2006). In linguistics, Oana Varga has applied systemic functional grammar, critical discourse analysis, organizational discourse analysis and development studies to analyse the conceptualization of ‘gender’ in development economics (2010).

Students’ interest in feminist studies and gender in Åbo goes back to the 1960s and begins with women’s history, characterization and social roles. Gender is mostly discussed in literary theses but there are some linguistic analyses of sex difference and sexism in the use of adjectives, gender stereotyping in advertisements, gender and language learning, and identity construction in narratives. Literary topics vary from father-daughter and mother-daughter relationships to gender construction and from African womanhood to aspects of manhood.

4.  Conclusion

As the present survey indicates, Gender Studies has a strong institutional presence in Finland, but not so much in the English departments of Finnish universities. However, there is a varyingly long history of gender-related research within the field, and the variety of concerns has expanded considerably especially during the past ten years. The classical Feminist Analysis has evolved into Gender Studies with its current interest in intersectionality, Critical Studies on men and masculinities, Queer Studies, and the posthuman.

We anticipate on the one hand that more research will contribute to Gender Studies in the near future, and that more students will take on an interest in gender. On the other hand, this development will remain somewhat arbitrary unless some institutionalization of Gender Studies takes place within English departments. In the current economic situation this will ← 264 | 265 → constitute a major obstacle were such an objective targeted. Nevertheless, the resilience and vigour of critical theory in general and Gender Studies in particular is significant and would warrant that Gender Studies continue to be a vital part of English Studies in Finland.


2.  Gender Studies in Finland

Aalto, Ilana / Maarit Leskelä-Kärki, ‘Jatkumoita ja uusia käänteitä: Sukupuolihistoria 2010-luvulla’ [Continuums and new turns: Gender history in the 2010s], Sukupuolentutkimus 1:1 (2014), 4–6.

Elomäki, Anna / Marjaana Jauhola / Mianna Meskus, ‘Naistutkimuksesta sukupuolentutkimukseen’ [From Women’s Studies to Gender Studies], Sukupuolentutkimus 1:1 (2014), 2–3.

Eräsaari, Leena, ‘Julkisten palveluiden muutokset ja naisten asema’ [Changes in public services and women’s position], 1:3 (2014), 32–36.

Koivunen, Anu, ‘Kun henkilökohtainen ei ole poliittista [When the personal is not political], in Erot ja etiikka feministisessä tutkimuksessa [Differences and ethics in feminist research], eds. Kirsti Lempiäinen / Taru Leppänen / Susanna Paasonen (Turku: Utukirjat, 2012), pp. 185–209.

Korvajärvi, Päivi, ‘Sukupuolistunut ja sukupuolistava työ’ [Gendered and gendering labour], in Käsikirja sukupuoleen [The handbook of gender], eds. Tuija Saresma / Leena-Maija Rossi / Juvonen Tuula (Tampere: Vastapaino, 2010), pp. 183–96.

Kuusipalo, Jaana, ‘Sukupuolittunut poliittinen edustus Suomessa’ [Gendered political representation in Finland], Naistutkimus 24:3 (2011), 50–53.

Lempiäinen, Kirsti, ‘Naistutkimuksen kolme vuosikymmentä’ [The three decades of Women’s Studies], in Käsikirja sukupuoleen [The handbook of gender], eds. Tuija Saresma / Leena-Maija Rossi / Juvonen Tuula (Tampere: Vastapaino, 2010), pp. 274–76.

Lempiäinen, Kirsti / Taru Leppänen / Susanna Paasonen, ‘Erojen jakamat ja yhdistämät: Johdanto [Divided and united by differences: An introduction], in Erot ja etiikka feministisessä tutkimuksessa [Differences and ethics in feminist research], eds. Kirsti Lempiäinen / Taru Leppänen / Susanna Paasonen (Turku: Utukirjat, 2012), pp. 7–17. ← 265 | 266 →

Liljeström, Marianne, ‘Akateemisen feminismin historiallistamisesta’ [On historicizing academic feminism], Sukupuolentutkimus 1:1 (2014), 62–65.

–, ‘Kotimainen sukupuoli’ [Domestic gender]. unpublished seminar paper given at Naistutkimusakatemia 10: Sisäsiisti sukupuoli [Women’s Studies Academy 10: Housebroken Gender Seminar], 21 Feb. 2011, University of Turku, Finland.

Nyqvist, Yasmin, Naistutkimuksen valtakunnallinen työelämäselvitys: Raportti naistutkimusta opiskelleiden asemasta työmarkkinoilla ja oppiaineen merkityksestä työelämässä [Women’s Studies National Employment Survey: A report on the position of Women’s Studies graduates in the work force and the significance of Women’s Studies in working life], translated from Swedish into Finnish by Minna Seikkula (Turku: Hilma-verkosto & Åbo Akademi, 2009).

Taavetti, Riikka, ‘Kohti sosialistista feminismiä: Marxist-Feministerna-ryhmä 1974–1978’ [Towards socialist feminism: Marxist feministerna group 1974–1978], Naistutkimus 25:3 (2012), 30–42.

Ylöstalo, Hanna, ‘Naisia, miehiä vai ihmisiä? Sukupuolten tasa-arvo työpaikkojen tasa-arvotyössä ja feministisessä tutkimuksessa’ [Women, men or humans? Gender equality in the work-place equality work and in feminist research], Naistutkimus 19:3 (2006), 17–28.

Electronic sources

Ministry of Social Affairs and Health website on its responsible agencies in English, <> (18 Dec 2014).

SQS website, <> (18 Dec 2014).

TANE website, <> (18 Dec 2014).

The University of Lapland website for Gender Studies in English, <> (18 Dec 2014).

The University of Tampere website on research in English, <> (18 Dec 2014).

Timelines of Academic Feminism in Finland project website, <> (18 Dec 2014). ← 266 | 267 →

3.  English and Gender Studies in the English Departments

3.1  University of Eastern Finland (UEF)

Kilpeläinen, Pekka, In Search of a Postcategorical Utopia: James Baldwin and the Politics of ‘Race’ and Sexuality (Joensuu: Dissertations in Education, Humanities, and Theology, 2010), <> (18 Dec 2014).

Miettinen, Hanna / Greg Watson, ‘“Sort of” in British Women’s and Men’s Speech’, English Language Teaching (ELT) 6:3 (2013), 108–15.

Nyman, Jopi, Men Alone: Masculinity, Individualism, and Hard-Boiled Fiction (Amsterdam / Atlanta: Rodopi, 1997).

–, ‘De/Constructing Hybridity: Reading Animal Writing’, in A Question of Power: Representations of Gender, Nation and Ethnicity in Text and Image, eds. Ulrike Spring / Karin Granquist, Kvinnforsk Occasional Papers (Tromsö: University of Tromsö, 2001), pp. 41–56.

–, ‘Ethnosexual Encounters in the Fiction of Bharati Mukherjee’, in Jopi Nyman, Post-National Enquiries: Essays on Ethnic and Racial Border Crossings (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009), pp. 148–69.

–, ‘Horse as Significant Other: Discourses of Affect and Therapy in Susan Richards’s Chosen by a Horse: How a Broken Horse Fixed a Broken Heart’, Humanimalia: A Journal of Human/Animal Inferface Studies 5:2 (2014), 68–86.

Nyman, Jopi / Marianne Roivas, ‘Kirjallisia sukupuolia: Sukupuolen näkökulma kirjallisuudentutkimuksessa’ [Literary genders: The gender aspect in literary studies], in Mikä Ero? Kaksikymmentä kirjoitusta yhteiskunnasta, kulttuurista ja sukupuolesta [What difference? Twenty texts on society, culture and gender], eds. Risto Turunen / Marianne Roivas (Helsinki: SKS, 2003), pp. 13–29.

Reinikainen, Hanna, ‘Embodiment of Trauma: Corporeality in Toni Morrison’s Beloved’, in Close Encounters of an Other Kind: New Perspectives on Race, Ethnicity & American Studies, eds. Roy Goldblatt / Jopi Nyman / John A. Stotesbury (Joensuu: Joensuun yliopisto, 2005), pp. 95–102.

–, ‘Hybrid Bodies, Hybrid Music: Rereading Toni Morrison’s Jazz and “Authenticity”’, in New Hybridities: Societies and Cultures in Transition, eds. Frank Heidemann / Alfonso de Toro, Passages: Transdisciplinary ← 267 | 268 → Cultural Perspectives (Hildesheim, et al.: Georg Olms Verlag, 2006), pp. 101–14.

Riissanen, Anne / Greg Watson, ‘Gender Difference in the Use of Speech Representation: A Corpus-based Study’, English Language Teaching (ELT) 7:3 (2014), 71–84.

Salenius, Sirpa, ‘The “Emancipated Ladies” of America in the Travel Writing of Fredrika Bremer and Alexandra Gripenberg’, Journal of International Women’s Studies 14:1 (2013), 113–31.

–, Rose Elizabeth Cleveland: First Lady and Literary Scholar (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).

Stotesbury, John A., ‘Masculinity and Militarism in the Late-Colonial Novel of War’, in Popular Texts in English: New Perspectives, eds. Lucía Mora / Antonio Ballesteros (Ciudad Real: Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 2001), 55–69.

–, ‘Genre and Islam in Recent Anglophone Romantic Fiction’, in Refracting the Canon in Contemporary British Literature and Film, eds. Susana Onega / Christian Gutleben (Amsterdam / New York: Rodopi, 2004), pp. 69–82.

–, ‘Muslim Romance in Diaspora: Leila Aboulela’s Minaret and the Ethics of Reading in the West’, Armenian Folia Anglistika: International Journal of English Studies 6:1–2 (2009), 243–48.

3.2  University of Helsinki

Bush, Laurel, ‘Coming of Age: Academic Women in Modern Fiction’, in ‘As Who Say’ – Many Happy Returns: Essays in Honour of Saara Nevanlinna, eds. Päivi Pahta / Irma Taavitsainen / Leena Kahlas-Tarkka (Helsinki: Yliopistopaino, 1992), pp. 1–12.

Hall, Alaric, Elves in Anglo-Saxon England: Matters of Belief, Health, Gender and Identity (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2007).

Keinänen, Nely, ‘Elizabeth I, “Her Majesties most princelie answere”’, in Reading Early Modern Women: An Anthology of Texts in Manuscript and Print 1550–1700, eds. Helen Ostovich / Elizabeth Sauer (London: Routledge, 2004), pp. 21–23.

–, ‘Female Multilingualism in William Shakespeare and George Peele’, English Text Construction 6:1 (2013), 89–111. ← 268 | 269 →

Keinänen, Nely / Mari Pakkala-Weckström, ‘Discourses of Jealousy and Marital Violence in Shakespeare’, in Authority of Expression in Early Modern England, eds. Nely Keinänen / Maria Salenius (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009), pp. 77–97.

Keinänen, Nely / Maria Salenius, eds., Authority of Expression in Early Modern England (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009).

Kuivalainen, Päivi, ‘Consciousness and Narrative: A Case Study of Women’s Fiction 1688–1922’, unpublished licentiate thesis, Department of English, University of Helsinki, 2005.

Meurman-Solin, Anneli, ‘Women’s Scots: Gender-based Variation in Renaissance Letters’, in Older Scots Literature, ed. Sally Mapstone (Edinburgh: John Donald, 2005), pp. 424–40.

Mustanoja, Tauno F., ed., The Good Wife Taught Her Daughter, The Good Wyfe Wold a Pylgremage, The Thewis of Gud Women (Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Fennica, 1948).

Nevalainen, Terttu, ‘Gender Differences in the Evolution of Standard English: Evidence from the Corpus of Early English Correspondence’, Journal of English Linguistics 28:1 (2000), 38–59.

–, ‘Gender Stereotypes and Language Use in Late Modern English’, in Contexts – Historical, Social, Linguistic: Studies in Celebration of Toril Swan, eds. Kevin McCafferty / Tove Bull / Kristin Killie (Bern: Peter Lang, 2006), pp. 129–44.

Pahta, Päivi, ‘The History of English Studies in Finland’, in European English Studies: Contributions towards the History of a Discipline, II, eds. Renate Haas / Balz Engler (Leicester: English Association for ESSE, 2008), pp. 15–42.

Peterson, Elizabeth, ‘Social Appropriateness and Language Variation: A Study of Finnish Requests’, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, 2004.

–, ‘Pressure to Please: The Case of English and Politeness in Finland’, in Dynamics of Language Contact in the Twenty First Century, ed. Carla Vergaro (Perugia: Guerra Edizioni, 2008), pp. 161–77.

Shackleton, Mark, ‘Power and Authority in the Realms of Racial and Gender Politics: Postcolonial and Critical Race Theory in The Last Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse’, in Louise Erdrich: Tracks, The Last ← 269 | 270 → Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse, The Plague of Doves, ed. Deborah Madsen (London / New York: Continuum, 2011), pp. 67–81.

Taavitsainen, Irma / Andreas H. Jucker, ‘“Methinks you seem more beautiful than ever”: Compliments and Gender in the History of English’, in Speech Acts in the History of English, eds. I. Taavitsainen / A. H. Jucker (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2008), pp. 171–204.

Unterbeck, Barbara / Matti Rissanen / Terttu Nevalainen / Mirja Saari, eds., Gender in Grammar and Cognition, I: Approaches to Gender, II: Manifestations of Gender (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2000).

Vartiainen, Turo / Tanja Säily / Mikko Hakala, ‘Variation in Pronoun Frequencies in Early English Letters: Gender-based or Relationship-based?’, in Ex Philologia Lux: Essays in Honour of Leena Kahlas-Tarkka, eds. Jukka Tyrkkö / Olga Timofeeva / Maria Salenius (Helsinki: Uusfilologinen yhdistys, 2013), pp. 233–55.

3.3  University of Jyväskylä

Halonen, Mia / Sirpa Leppänen, ‘“Pissis Stories”: The Self and the Other as Gendered, Sexualized and Class-based Performance on Social Media’, in Discourse and Identification: Diversity and Heterogeneity in Social Media Practices, eds. S. Leppänen / Samu Kytölä / Elina Westinen, manuscript (in preparation).

Jäntti, Saara, ‘Diagnoosin paikka: Naisten kertomuksia psykiatrian potilaiksi tulemisesta’ [The place of diagnosis: Women’s stories about their becoming psychiatric patients], in Hulluudesta itsehallintaan: Uuden historian näkökulmia psyykkisiin ilmiöihin ja ammattikäytäntöihin [From madness to self-control: New Historicist perspectives on psychological phenomena and professional practices], eds. Katri Komulainen / Hannu Räty / Jussi Silvonen (Joensuu: Joensuun yliopistopaino, 2006), pp. 248–72.

–, Bringing Madness Home: Janet Frame’s Faces in the Water, Bessie Head’s A Question of Power and Lauren Slater’s Prozac Diary, doctoral dissertation (Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2012).

Jäntti, Saara / Suvi Järvinen, ‘Kotiblogien julkiset käpertymisen maisemat’ [Public landscapes of nestling in home blogs], in Maisemassa: Sukupuoli ja kansallisuus suomalaisuuden kuvastoissa [In the landscape: Gender ← 270 | 271 → and nationality in the imagery of Finnishness], eds. Tuija Saresma / Saara Jäntti (Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2012), pp. 218–48.

Kytölä, Samu, Multilingual Language Use and Metapragmatic Reflexivity in Finnish Online Football Forums: A Study in the Sociolinguistics of Globalization, doctoral dissertation (Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2013).

Lehtonen, Sanna, ‘Invisible Girls and Old Young Women: Fantastic Bodily Transformations and Gender in Children’s Fantasy Novels by Diana Wynne Jones and Susan Price’, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Languages, University of Jyväskylä, 2010.

–, ‘“I’m glad I was designed”: Un/doing Gender and Class in Susan Price’s “Odin Trilogy”’, Children’s Literature in Education 43:3 (2012), 242–59.

–, Girls Transforming: Invisibility and Age-Shifting in Children’s Fantasy Fiction since the 1970s (Jefferson: McFarland, 2013).

Leppänen, Sirpa, ‘Cybergirls in Trouble? Fan Fiction as a Discursive Space for Interrogating Gender and Sexuality’, in Identity Trouble: Critical Discourse and Contested Identities, eds. Carmen Rosa Caldas-Coulthard / Rick Iedema (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), pp. 156–79.

–, ‘Authenticity as Ventriloquy: How Blogs by Dogs Tell about Women’s Identity Projects’, in ‘Authenticity, Normativity and Social Media’, eds. S. Leppänen / Janus Møller / Thomas Nørreby, special issue of Discourse, Context and Media (forthcoming).

Varis, Piia, ‘“The sort of woman I was”: Construction of Gendered National Identity in Maud Gonne’s Autobiography A Servant of the Queen (1938)’, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Languages, University of Jyväskylä, 2009.

3.4  University of Oulu

McIlvenny, Paul, ‘The Graphic Fictions of Masculinity in the Autobiographical Comic The Spiral Cage’, The Literature Review – Special Edition: Gender/Sexuality and Literature, Publications of the Department of English / University of Oulu, C, Literary and Cultural Studies 4 (1997), 76–107.

McIlvenny, Paul, ed., Talking Gender and Sexuality (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2002). ← 271 | 272 →

3.5 University of Tampere

Hyrynen, Yvonne, ed., Voicing gender, Tampere English studies, 5 (Tampere: University of Tampere, 1996).

Kaipiainen, Merja, ‘Virginia Woolf, Modernism and the Visual Arts’, unpublished licentiate thesis, Department of English, University of Tampere, 2001.

Koivuvaara, Pirjo, Hunger, Consumption, and Identity in Elizabeth Gaskell´s Novels, Acta Electronica Universitatis Tamperensis, 1191 (Tampere: University of Tampere, 2000), <> (19 Dec 2014).

Miettinen Mervi, ‘“Do you understand how I have loved you?” Terrible Loves and Divine Visions in From Hell’, in Sexual Ideology in the Works of Alan Moore: Critical Essays on the Graphic Novels, eds. Joseph Sommers / Todd Comer (Jefferson: McFarland, 2012), pp. 88–99; (=2012a).

–, ‘Men of Steel? Rorschach, Theweleit, and Watchmen’s Deconstructed Masculinity’, PS: Political Science and Politics 47:1 (2014), 104–07.

–, Truth, Justice, and the American Way? The Popular Geopolitics of American Identity in Contemporary Superhero Comics, Acta Universitatis Tamperensis, 1790 (Tampere: Tampere UP, 2012); (=2012b).

Piipponen, Maarit, (No) More Family: Reading Family and Serial Murder in Patricia Cornwell’s Gault-Trilogy, doctoral dissertation, Acta Electronica Universitatis Tamperensis, 17 (Tampere: University of Tampere, 2000), <> (19 Dec 2014).

Savolainen, Matti, ‘Pidot sen kun paranee – hovimestarina Judith [The party is getting better – Judith as the butler], Avain 2:1 (2005), 87–92.

3.6  University of Turku

Doherty, Gerald, Oriental Lawrence: The Quest for the Secrets of Sex (New York: Peter Lang, 2001).

–, Pathologies of Desire: The Vicissitudes of the Self in James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (New York: Peter Lang, 2008).

–, Theorizing Lawrence: Nine Meditations on Tropological Themes (New York: Peter Lang, 1999). ← 272 | 273 →

Kokkola, Lydia, ‘Virtuous Vampires and Voluptuous Vamps: Romance Conventions Reconsidered in Stephenie Meyer’s “Twilight” Series’, Children’s Literature in Education 42:1 (2011), 165–79.

Kuortti, Joel, ‘City and Non-City: Political and Gender Issues in In Which Annie Gives It Those Ones’, in Globalizing Dissent: Essays on Arundhati Roy, eds. Ranjan Ghosh / Antonia Navarro-Tejero (London: Routledge, 2008), pp. 80–90.

–, Indian Women’s Writing in English: A Bibliography (Jaipur: Rawat, 2002).

–, ‘Ruumis todisteena: Rei Shimura monikulttuurisena feministisenä etsivänä’ [Body as evidence: Rei Shimura as a multicultural feminist detective], Naistutkimus 18:1 (2005), 64–70; (=2005a).

–, Tense Past, Tense Present: Women Writing in English (Calcutta: Stree, 2003).

–, ‘Yli mustan veden: Diasporan vaiettuja tarinoita Ramabai Espinet’n romaanissa The Swinging Bridge’ [Across the black water: Silenced stories of the diaspora in Ramabai Espinet’s novel The Swinging Bridge], Avain 2:2 (2005), 46–65; (=2005b).

–, Writing Imagined Diasporas: South Asian Women Reshaping North American Identity (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2007).

Kuortti, Joel / Mittapalli Rajeshwar, eds., Indian Women’s Short Fiction (New Delhi: Atlantic, 2007).

Niemi, Minna, ‘Challenging Psychoanalysis: A Black Woman’s Experience of “Race”, Class and Gender in Alice Walker’s Meridian’, in Close Encounters of An Other Kind: New Perspectives on Race, Ethnicity & American Studies, eds. Roy Goldblatt / Jopi Nyman / John Stotesbury (Joensuu: University of Joensuu Studies in Literature and Culture, 2005), pp. 85–94.

–, ‘Alice Walkerin Possessing the Secret of Joy -romaani transnationaalisen feminismin edustajana’ [Alice Walker’s novel Possessing the Secret of Joy as an example of transnational feminism], in Vieraaseen kotiin: Kulttuurinen identiteetti ja muuttoliike kirjallisuudessa [Into an alien home: Cultural identity and migration in literature], eds. Pirjo Ahokas / Lotta Kähkönen (Turku: University of Turku Press, 2003), pp. 61–81. ← 273 | 274 →

Skinner, John, Constructions of Smollett: A Study of Genre and Gender (Newark: U Delaware P, 1996).

–, The Fictions of Anita Brookner: Illusions of Romance (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992).

–, An Introduction to Eighteenth-century Fiction: Raising the Novel (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001).

Valovirta, Elina, ‘Blowing the Love-breath: Healing Men in Caribbean Women’s Writing’, Feminist Review, Special Issue: Affect and Creolisation 104 (2013), 100–18; (=2013a).

–, ‘“Caribbean Passion” as a Reparative Practice: The Hyper-sexual and the Asexual Woman in the Fiction of Opal Palmer Adisa and Erna Brodber’, in Seeking the Self – Encountering the Other: Diasporic Narrative and the Ethics of Representation, eds. Tuomas Huttunen / Kaisa Ilmonen / Janne Korkka / E. Valovirta (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008), pp. 182–97.

–, ‘Communication Knowledge: Postcolonial Feminist Reader Theory in the Fiction of Erna Brodber’, unpublished licentiate thesis, Department of English, University of Turku, 2004.

–, ‘Ethics of Empathy and Reading in Shani Mootoo’s Cereus Blooms at Night’, in Working with Affect in Feminist Readings: Disturbing Differences, eds. Marianne Liljeström / Susanna Paasonen (London: Routledge, 2010), pp. 140–50; (=2010a).

–, ‘A Journey into Knowing: Reading Erna Brodber’s Fiction as Post-Colonial Écriture Féminine’, unpublished MA thesis, Department of English, University of Turku, 2001.

–, ‘Miehemme maailmalla – outoja kohtaamisia Madventures –televisiosarjassa’ [Our men in the world – strange encounters in the TV show Madventures], Kulttuurintutkimus 30:1 (2013), 31–41; (=2013b).

–, Sexual Feelings: Reading Anglophone Caribbean Women’s Writing through Affect (Amsterdam / New York: Rodopi, 2014).

–, ‘“Oudot” tunteet: Affektiivinen feministinen lukijateoria ja karibialainen naiskirjallisuus’ [‘Strange feelings’: Affective feminist reader theory and Caribbean women’s writing], Naistutkimus – Kvinnoforskning 19:3 (2006), 4–16.

–, ‘Reading the Intimacies of Shame in Edwidge Danticat’s Breath, Eyes, Memory’, in Scenes of Intimacy: Reading, Writing and Theorising ← 274 | 275 → Contemporary Literature, ed. Jennifer Cooke (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013), pp. 37–53; (=2013c).

–, ‘Ylirajaisten erojen politiikkaa’ [Cross-border politics of difference], in Käsikirja sukupuoleen [The handbook of gender], eds. Tuula Juvonen / Leena-Maija Rossi / Tuija Saresma (Tampere: Vastapaino, 2010), pp. 92–105; (=2010b).

3.7  University of Vaasa

Aaltonen, Sirkku, ‘Does the Eel Have a Gender? Processes of Interpretation into English of Three Plays by Laura Ruohonen’, in Theatre and Theatre Studies in the 21st Century, eds. Anna Tabaki / Walter Puchner (Athens, Greece: Ergo, 2010), pp. 127–36.

Dubova, Galina, Under Other Eyes: Constructions of Russianness in Three Socio-political English Novels, doctoral dissertation (Vaasa: Vaasan yliopisto, 2010).

Höglund, Maj-Britt, ‘“Fun, Fearless Females”: Descriptions of the Cosmo Girl in the Editorials of Cosmopolitan UK’, unpublished licentiate thesis, University of Vaasa, 2007.

Mäntymäki, Tiina, ‘“Women Who Kill Men”: Gender, Agency and Subversion in Swedish Crime Novels’, European Journal of Women’s Studies 20 (2013), 1–15.

–, ed., Uhri, demoni vai harhainen hulllu? Väkivaltainen nainen populaarikulttuurissa. [Victim, demon, or delusional lunatic? The violent woman in popular culture] (Vaasa: Vaasan yliopisto, 2014, forthcoming).

Mäntymäki, Tiina / Olli Mäkinen, eds., Art and Resistance (Vaasa: Vaasan yliopisto, 2009).

Mäntymäki, Tiina / Marinella Rodi-Risberg / Anna Foka, eds., Deviant Woman: Cultural, Linguistic and Literary Approaches to Narratives of Femininity (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2014).

Porter, Gerald, The English Occupational Song, doctoral dissertation, Umeå Studies in the Humanities, 105 (Umeå: University of Umeå, 1992).

Rodi-Risberg, Marinella, Writing Trauma, Writing Time and Space: Jane Smiley’s A Thousand Acres and the Lear Group of Father-Daughter Incest Narrative, licentiate thesis, Acta Wasaensia, 229 (Vaasa: Vaasan yliopisto, 2010). ← 275 | 276 →

Ruuskanen, Deborah D. K., ‘The Problem of Gender in Translation’, in Engendering Communication: Proceedings of the Fifth Berkeley Women and Language Conference, eds. Suzanne Wertheim / Ashlee C. Bailey / Monica Corston-Oliver (Berkeley: Berkeley Women and Language Group, 1998), pp. 497–508.

Wang Lei, The Uncanny objet a in Toni Morrison’s Fiction, doctoral dissertation, Acta Wasaensia 246 (Vaasa: Vaasan yliopisto, 2011).

3.8  Åbo Akademi University

Brandt, Katja, Christina Rosetti’s ‘Goblin Market’ – Milton Revised or Revived?, doctoral dissertation (Åbo: Åbo Akademis förlag, 2006).

Lassén-Seger, Maria, Adventures into Otherness: Child Metamorphs in Late Twentieth-century Children’s Literature, doctoral dissertation (Åbo: Åbo Akademis förlag, 2006).

Lindahl-Raittila, Iris, From Victim of the ‘Feminine Mystique’ to Heroine of Feminist Deconstruction: Auto/Biographical Images of Sylvia Plath 1963–2001, doctoral dissertation (Åbo: Åbo Akademis förlag, 2002).

Olaussen, Maria, Three Types of Feminist Criticism and Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea (Åbo: Institutet for kvinnoforskning vid Abo akademi, 1992).

–, Forceful Creation in Harsh Terrain: Place and Identity in Three Novels by Bessie Head, doctoral dissertation (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1997).

Varga, Oana, From Women to Gender: A Diachronic Exploration of Participant Representation in Texts from the United Nations, doctoral dissertation (Åbo: Åbo Akademis förlag, 2010).

[Received December 22, 2014] ← 276 | 277 →