The authors of the book discuss issues which transcend the boundaries of philological research. They apply knowledge from various fields, such as psychology, communication theory, aesthetics, mass media and other social sciences in order to obtain relevant scientific results. The authors present critical analyses and interpretations of contemporary theoretical and practical problems occurring in the selected areas of expertise, and outline the perspective research possibilities.
Table Of Content
- Title Page
- Copyright Page
- About the editors
- About the book
- Citability of the eBook
- List of Authors
- Linguistics and Foreign Language Didactics
- Precedent Phenomena in the Mirror of Associations
- The Origin of the Term Precedent Phenomenon
- Theoretical Interpretations of Precedent Phenomenon
- Structure of Precedent Phenomenon: Centre, Periphery and Zone of Transition
- Precedent Phenomena as a Manifestation of Intertextuality
- The Association Experiment in Diachronical Cross-Section
- The Characteristics of the Association Experiment
- Association Dictionaries, resp. Dictionaries of Association Norms
- Precedent Phenomena as a Linguistic, Translation and Reception Problem11 The paper is part of the research project UGA III/15/2016 Špecifiká transferu a recepcie precedentných fenoménov v slovenských a nemeckých prekladoch súčasnej ruskej prózy (The particularities of transfer and reception of precedent phenomena in Slovak and German translations of contemporary Russian fiction) at the Department of Translation Studies, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra.
- Linguoculturology as a Current Perspective in Studying Language and Culture
- National Cultural Space in Cognitive Linguistics
- The Concept of Precedentness (Precedent Phenomena) from the Linguocultural Perspective
- Precedentness from the Perspective of Contemporary Linguistics
- Classification of Precedent Phenomena
- Precedent Names as a Cultural Translation and Reception Phenomenon
- Precedent Names in Linguistics and Cultural Studies
- Precedent Names and Their Function in Creating National Cultural Stereotypes
- Translation and Reception of Precedent Names in Three Linguistic Communities and Cultural Contexts
- Names of Rulers, Statesmen, Representatives of Political and Cultural Life
- Names of Writers and Literary Works
- Names of Singers, Artists and Their Works
- Expressing Emotions in Slovak and Romanian Proverbs and Idioms: A Comparison of the Language View of the World Reconstructed from Communication-Cultural Stereotypes and Paremiological Language Material of Two Typologically Different Languages
- Methods and Processes of Primary Research: Methodological Basis of Research
- Cognitive Science, Cognitive Linguistics, Cognitive Phraseology
- Basic Concepts and Research Methods of Cognitive Linguistics and Cognitive Phraseology
- The Slovaks in Romania and Bilingualism as a Dialogue of Cultures
- Reconstruction of the Linguistic Picture of the World from Proverbs and Idioms
- Interpretation and Comparison of Slovak and Romanian Proverbs, Idioms and Phraseologized Similes Expressing the Emotion of Love
- Love Between a Man and a Woman
- Interpretation and Comparison of Slovak and Romanian Proverbs, Idioms and Phraseologized Similes Expressing the Emotion of Anger
- Cognitive Analysis of the Concept of Envy as an Interpretative Construct of Slovak Lingual and Cultural Society11The article was published with the financial support of the University Grant Agency of the University of Constantine the Philosopher in Nitra within the project no. I-14-213-02 “Solution of linguistic and extralinguistic means involved in the realization of the tabloid principle in Slovak print media”.
- Metaphor as a Lingual and Cognitive Phenomenon
- Anthropocentrism as a Starting Point of Lingual Conceptualization of the World
- Categorization of Conceptual Metaphors
- Theoretical and Methodological Basis for Cognitive-Linguistic Analysis
- Conceptual Metaphors of the Concept of Envy
- Metaphorical Conceptualization of Envy Based on Sensory Experience with the Colour Spectrum
- Interlingual Homonymy in Genetically Related Languages11 In cases where there is no need to set apart interlingual paronymy, we have decided to use the term interlingual homonymy as an umbrella term for both homonymy and paronymy; that means for similar or identical interlingual lexical couples.
- Terminological Definition of Interlingual Homonymy
- Theoretical Definition of Interlingual Homonymy
- Research on Interlingual Homonymy in Slavic Linguistics
- The Issue of Interlingual Homonymy in the Slovak-Slovene Relationship
- Instead of a Conclusion
- Intonation in Reports Featuring “Light” Topics on Slovak TV News11The article originated within the UGA project, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, no. III/12/2016 The function of emphasis in the TV news.
- The Role of the Media in the Creating and Forming of Linguistic Norms
- Intonation in the Slovak Language and Basic Types of Melodeme
- Intonation in Contemporary TV News
- Research of Intonation in Slovak TV News
- Characteristics of the Research
- Intonation Analysis of Reports on Light Topics
- Lexical Means Used in the Realization of the Tabloid Principle: (Based on the Stimulation of Malevolence)11The article was published with the financial support of the University Grant Agency of the University of Constantine the Philosopher in Nitra within the project no. I-14-213-02 “Solution of linguistic and extralinguistic means involved in the realization of the tabloid principle in Slovak print media”.
- Headlines in the Tabloid Daily Papers Nový Čas and Plus JEDEN DEŇ
- The Contrast Principle as a Constituent of the “Tabloid Strategy”
- Referring Expressions Implying the Subjective Opinion of the Author
- Metaphorization as an Expressively Emotive Constituent of the Contrast Principle
- Cognitive Metaphors Used in the Stimulation of Malevolence
- Evaluative Metaphors Used in the Stimulation of Malevolence
- Metonymies Used in Stimulating Malevolence
- Comparison Used in Stimulating Malevolence
- The Phraseological Unit as an Expressively Emotive Constituent of the Tabloid Principle
- Colloquialisms, Slang and Vulgarisms Used in the Realization of the Tabloid Principle
- Irony (Sarcasm) – Text Creating Means of Tabloid Text
- Analysis of Teaching Materials for Foreign Language Reading Comprehension
- Integrating Creativity and Reading
- Teaching Effectively Using a Trans-Disciplinary Approach and Skills
- Critical Thinking in Reading
- Coursebook Reading Materials and Their Evaluation
- Types of Reading Comprehension
- Research Sample
- Research Questions and Hypotheses
- Research Methods
- Evaluation of New Coursebook-Related Opportunities for Reading Skills Development
- Discussion and Conclusions
- A Brief View of the History of the Standard Slovak Language (Between the Two World Wars), Vojvodina Slovak Studies and the Relevance of Vojvodina Slovak Studies in the History of the Standard Slovak Language
- Vojvodina Slovak Studies and Its Relevance to the History of the Standard Slovak Language
- Lanštják and Launer’s View on Štúr’s Standardization of the Slovak Language
- Lanštják’s View on Štúr’s Literary Language
- Launer’s Opinion on Štúr’s Literary Language
- Literary Research
- The Magic of Intertextuality in Carol Ann Duffy’s Poetry
- The World’s Wife
- Intertextuality in The World’s Wife
- Little Red Cap
- Mrs Midas
- Mrs Faust
- from Mrs Tiresias
- The Lyric Subject in Contemporary Poetry
- Revision and Self-Censorship in the Poetry Collection Sonety Pre Tvoju Samotu (Sonnets For Your Solitude) by Vojtech Mihálik11This text is an output of the research project UGA I-16-213-02 – Tvorba Vojtecha Mihálika a jej dobová recepcia (The work of Vojtech Mihálik and its contemporary interpretation).
- The Influence of Dionýz Durišin on Lotman’s Semiosphere Theory. Semiotics Between Russia and Slovakia
- A Short History of Comparative Literature
- The Lotmanian Point of View: A Semiotic Definition of Culture
- Semiotics of Culture
- Type of Culture
- The Semiosphere
- Continuous Processes and the Explosion: The Dynamics of Cultural Systems
- Ďurišin and Lotman
- The Aesthetic Event and the Act of Interpretation11This text was created as a part of the project: UGA I-16-216-02 – Theory of the aesthetic event.
- Studies in Linguistics, Anglophone Literatures and Cultures
Mgr. Marka Bireş Department of Slovak Language and Literature, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Štefánikova 67, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Mgr. Lucia Biznárová Institute of Literary and Artistic Communication, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Štefánikova 67, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Mgr. Katarína Chválová Department of Romance Studies, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Hodžova 1, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Mgr. Andrea De Luca
Department of Romance Studies, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Hodžova 1, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Mgr. Miriama Juricová Department of Russian Language, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Štefánikova 67, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Mgr. Ivana Klabníková Department of Slovak Language and Literature, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Štefánikova 67, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Mgr. Samuel Koruniak Department of Slovak Language and Literature, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Štefánikova 67, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Doc. PaedDr. Zuzana Kováčová, PhD Department of Slovak Language and Literature, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Štefánikova 67, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Mgr. Martin Navrátil Department of Slovak Language and Literature, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Štefánikova 67, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Mgr. Adriana Parížeková Department of Slovak Language and Literature, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Štefánikova 67, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Mgr. Patrik Petráš, PhD Department of Slovak Language and Literature, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Štefánikova 67, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Mgr. Alica Ternová Department of Slovak Language and Literature, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Štefánikova 67, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
Mgr. Andrej Zahorák Department of Translation Studies, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Štefánikova 67, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
PhDr. Peter Žiak Institute of Literary and Artistic Communication – Department of Semiotic Studies, Faculty of Arts, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Štefánikova 67, 949 74 Nitra, Slovak Republic.
The monograph is divided into two parts which deal with linguistic (didactics of foreign languages included) and literary research, respectively. The thematic diversity of the papers demonstrates the multifariousness of basic as well as applied philological research. The publication has been co-created by a group of PhD students and research fellows who work in the field of Slovak, Russian, Romanian, German and English language and literature, and this fact highlights its intercultural dimension.
The section containing papers centred on linguistic research opens with a chapter on the relation between language, thought and culture. The outlined research area represents one of the key research approaches in contemporary linguistics. A shift at the turn of the 21st century meant that philological studies on language started to focus not only on particular levels of language or functions of linguistic means within discourse but also on the person involved in communication. Several interdisciplinary approaches came into existence at this point, all of which were connected, despite their obvious differences, by their interest in the relation between human beings and language.
At present, the cognitive approach to language stands in the foreground. It is discussed in the chapter which deals with the problem of precedent phenomena as reflected in associations hidden in our subconscious. The chapter analyses cultural-social linguistic stereotypes related to precedent phenomena in various cultural contexts by utilizing the psycholinguistic method of the associative experiment.
Similarly, precedent phenomena are examined in the chapter accentuating research of precedent names. These linguistic units are characterized by a specific linguocultural attribute, namely that when applied in communication, it is their differential features that are emphasized, not nomination, i.e. the act of denoting. The paper dealing with precedent phenomena as linguistic, translation and reception problems focuses on identification, decoding and reception of precedent names in a selected work of Russian literature. Subsequently, it also discusses their appropriate recoding into Slovak and German linguocultural contexts.
The cognitive approach to the study of language is also implied by a comparative analysis of a linguistic picture of emotions reconstructed from the paremiological funds and cultural-communicative stereotypes of the Slovak and Romanian languages. The authors use discourse analysis and interpretative analysis of paremia and phrasemes of two ontogenetically as well as typologically different languages. Thus, they shed light on relevant association patterns leading to congruence but also to differences between the languages and mentality of specific national communities.
Cognitive research in the publication also explores the concept of envy as an interpretative construct of the Slovak linguocultural community. The theoretical-methodological foundation of the research is derived from the concept of the American linguistic school represented by Lakoff and Johnson. The study aims at examining conceptual metaphors of envy, implying an experience with the said term which users of Slovak language have absorbed over time as an immanent part of their mental world. This standardized knowledge fixed in language thus represents an inseparable part of the culture of a particular community. In comparison with other languages and cultures, the delineation of the concept also implies culturally determined contradictions in experience which leads to the conceptualization of envy.
The article presenting research of interlingual homonyms in similar languages steers the discussion away from the cognitive approach. The study contains an analysis of individual types of interlingual homonyms in typologically related languages – Slovak and Slovenian. Moreover, the study outlines the theoretical-methodological foundations of research activities conducted at the Department of Slovak Language at the Faculty of Arts at Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra.
Besides studies on the relationship between language and culture of particular nations and intercultural studies comparing linguocultural communities from various perspectives, the monograph also includes an analysis of phonological aspects of the Slovak language in the context of mass-media communication. The chapter concentrates on differences in intonation in newsreaders’ speech as determined by the theme of the report. The article accentuates speech with so-called light themes.
An interdisciplinary approach to the study of language, foregrounding the areas of communication theory, journalism but mainly the psychology of emotions, is reflected in the chapter on the lexical means which contribute to tabloidization in Slovak print media (by stimulating antipathy). It is based on the hypothesis that one of the elementary tools of the so-called tabloid strategy is expressive emotionality aimed at stimulating negative emotions in the recipient. As a result, the pragmatic function of the text scales down the importance of facts.
Though the majority of chapters included in the monograph are of a linguistic orientation, pedagogical studies also represent an integral part of this book. They deal with the creative approaches of teachers in studying materials and their effectiveness in developing reading skills in foreign language learning. Reading is regarded not only as a process but primarily as a skill which needs to be developed by relevant methods.
As far as the methodological point of view is concerned, synchronic philological articles are enriched by chapters investigating language from a diachronic perspective. Therefore, one chapter introduces a brief overview of the development of Standard Slovak in the interwar period, concentrating on the research of differences in the development of the Slovak language used in Vojvodina. This is then compared to the standard variety in the mother country. To a certain extent, the study also provides a critical evaluation of the importance of Slovak studies in Vojvodina in the history of Standard Slovak. The section of philological articles dealing with linguistic research concludes with a chapter analysing the works of Š. Launer and A. Lantšják. The article sheds light on the political background of their bitter disputes with Ľ. Štúr aimed at the denunciation of Štúr’s standard variety as well as of Slovak nationalism.
The section comprising literary articles opens with an examination of intertextuality in the poetry of the contemporary British writer Carol Ann Duffy. The focus is put primarily on her collection The World’s Wife. The choice of the text was determined by the poet’s ability to modify traditional fairy tales, myths and historical stories and view them from a female perspective. This chapter aims at investigating her experiments with intertextuality based on the use of ambiguous themes and the possibility to perceive the text from different viewpoints.
Research of contemporary literature is also addressed in an article dealing with the lyrical subject in Slovak experimental poetry. It examines the question of whether it is relevant to see changes in the organization of intratextual elements, both from a reception and axiological perspective, as a natural development enabling the coexistence with a literary tradition or as a developmental crisis caused by the weakened position of the lyrical subject, i.e. a turning point negating intersubjective communication.
One of the chapters is concerned with so-called schematism. The author looks critically at the work of a significant representative of Slovak poetry, Vojtech Mihálik. A comparative analysis of the publication Sonety pre tvoju samotu (‘Sonnets for your solitude’) with the manuscript reveals hitherto unknown modifications of the original text which transcend several levels. The adjustments are both aesthetic and ideological. They resulted from a change in Mihálik’s worldview, which led to his abandonment of spiritual ideas.
Another philological chapter discusses the influence of Dionýz Ďurišin, a representative of the Slovak school of comparative literature, on the theory of the semiosphere presented by the Russian linguist Yuri Lotman. The author focuses not only on a historical overview of comparative literature, an introduction of the hermeneutic method or Lotman’s research of cultures and their mutually modified relationships, but he is also interested in the degree to which ideas of difference influence the level of reciprocity between various languages, literatures and cultures.
The section of papers concentrated on literary research closes with an interdisciplinary chapter dealing with the concept of events – a principal topic not only in contemporary continental philosophy but also in the theory of art and methodology of aesthetics. The study implies a connection between the philosophy of events and the act of interpretation and reception of a work of art.
The monograph seeks to present the outcomes of current research activities in the field of philology conducted at the Faculty of Arts at Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra. The wide thematic spectrum of the papers included reflects current trends and methods. The heterogeneous nature of the chapters, as well as the plurality of approaches towards research and interpretation of linguistic and literary phenomena, manifests the ability of a new generation of researchers to look at problems critically and thus contribute to the development of the philological sciences. The research outcomes included in the monograph are aimed primarily at the academic community and university students but also at the wider public interested in language and literature.
The Origin of the Term Precedent Phenomenon
At present, the exploration of the language that is linked to the culture of a certain nation is at the centre of linguistic attention. The origin of this tradition dates back to the time of W. von Humboldt, who claimed that language reflects the consciousness of the nation, the so-called spirit of the nation (Humboldt, 2000, p. 64). Also A. A. Potebna talks about language concealing both the spiritual and material heritage of the nation. The second half of the 20th century was a turning point in the orientation of linguistic research, because a communicative and pragmatic inversion was realized. The inversion enabled detailed analysis of the interaction between language and culture, with the result that since then philology sees language as a phenomenon of culture and a kind of cultural legacy. “Vedeckovýskumná paradigma sa mení zo štrukturalistickej na antropocentrickú a do centra pozornosti prenáša hovoriaceho človeka…” (Dulebová, 2015, p. 5). The character of a particular nation is studied by means of language. This fact supports the creation and development of bordering disciplines (e.g. psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, linguoculturology, cognitive linguistics, and pragmalinguistics). All our ideas about the world around us have an individual character and for each individual may considerably vary. The core of these stereotypical images (term Yu. Prochorov) consists of knowledge and ideas about certain phenomena that are familiar to mankind and need no further unnecessary comment. This information is situated in the cognitive base of each person, or at least at its border. Such phenomena are also called precedent. V. V. Krasnych characterizes the cognitive base as: “определенным образом структурированная совокупность необходимо обязательных знаний и национально-детерминированных и минимизированных представлений того или иного национально-лингво-культурного сообщества, которыми обладают все носители того или иного национально-культурного менталитета, все говорящие на том или ином языке”spirit of the nation” (Красных, 1998, p. 45).
The development of cognitive linguistics, which has started to deal with language as a cognitive mechanism, and the determination of linguoculturology as a separate scientific discipline have led to the fact that nowadays we see an increased interest in the study of precedence, and the scope of this field has been significantly widened (Антонякова, 2012, p. 49).
Precedent theory arose particularly based on linguoculturology, which explores the relationship between language and culture, as well as the operation of precedent phenomena in the speech of native speakers. In this regard, the researchers have focused on the analysis of precedent phenomena in speech. We should point out that the analysed texts found here have been created in the process of communication and some are artistic texts as well.
We could understand the term precedence as: “systém špecifických asociácií a pocitov vyvolaných vo vedomí, mysli predstaviteľov konkrétneho lingvokultúrneho spoločenstva, ktoré spája indivíduá so spoločnou kultúrou a spoločným jazykom, na základe komplexu kultúrnych hodnôt materiálneho alebo duchovného sveta, vlastného tomuto kolektívu, s určitou pridanou hodnotou – apeláciou k ich aktívnemu používaniu v každodennej komunikácii” (Blaho, 2012, p. 57). During the last decade human sciences have more frequently dealt with the concept of precedent phenomenon, whereby they describe the facts and phenomena of human activity, or products of their intellectual activity.
There are many texts, whether in journalism, communications or other spheres, which refer to the same widely known event. In linguistic tradition these texts have become called precedent. Similar texts were mentioned for the first time in the work Русский язык и языковая личность written by Ju. N. Karaulov, when it had fully entrenched into academic practice. Karaulov prelected in 1986 at the VII International Conference of Russian Language and Literature Teachers with the study Роль прецедентных текстов в структуре и функционировании языковой личности. He regards precedent texts as: “значимые для той или иной личности тексты в познавательном и эмоциональном отношениях, имеющие сверхличностный характер, т.е. хорошо известные и широкому окружению данной личности, включая её предшественников и современников, и, наконец, такие, обращение к которым возобновляется неоднократно в дискурсе данной языковой личности” (Караулов, 1987, p. 216). Citations, names of literary heroes, titles of literary works or the names of their authors are considered by Karaulov as precedent texts. These are texts that are well known to each average member of a particular linguoculturological society. The fact that they are so popular with native speakers and frequently used in their speech testifies to the importance of their research. By means of research of precedent phenomena it is possible to characterize the specificity of the national culture, traditions and customs that are reflected in the language. “Знание прецедентных текстов есть показатель принадлежности к данной эпохе и её культуре, тогда как их незнание, наоборот, есть предпосылка отторженности от соответствующей культуры” (Караулов, 1987, p. 216). The study of precedent phenomena helps us to specify the particularities of the target group and it also points to the mental-language complex of features of native speakers in this language area.
Consecutively Russian linguists such as G. G. Slyshkin, V. V. Krasnych, D. B. Gudkov, I. V. Zacharenko, D. V. Bagajeva and many others have begun to pay more attention to precedent phenomena. In their works we can find terms such as precedent name and precedent situation; V. V. Vorobjov introduces the term linguoculturema; D. Suprun uses the term text reminiscence and so on. These concepts are very similar, but they do not have the same significance, and respectively strength. In this case, the keyword is the word precedent that is understood and interpreted by linguists in approximately the same way. The difference is the extent to which precedent phenomena are analysed (Красных, 1998, p. 51). Different types of precedent units could be summarized under the umbrella term – precedent phenomenon, which is used in scientific practice by many authors (V. V. Krasnych, D. B. Gudkov and others). This term will also be crucial for us and we will continue to use it in our work.
- ISBN (PDF)
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- Publication date
- 2019 (February)
- Philology Interpretation of the world Interdisciplinary Intercultural context Anthropocentrism Synchronic-diachronic approach
- Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2019. 312 pp., 8 fig. b/w, 4 tables