Table Of Contents
- About the author(s)/editor(s)
- About the book
- This eBook can be cited
- Table of Contents
- About the Editors
- Introduction, by Bic Ngo
- Part I. Contesting Authoritative Discourses in Education
- Chapter One: Paying with Their Lives: One Family and the School-to-Prison Pipeline, by Joe Lewis and Letitia Basford
- Mass incarceration sets the stage for the school-to-prison pipeline
- Disproportionate and exclusionary discipline in schools
- Zero tolerance for children
- The downward spiral
- What can schools do?
- Chapter Two: Why Social Justice Educators Must Engage Science in All of Our Classrooms, by Jane L. Lehr
- Social justice pedagogies and scientific knowledge
- Science and technology studies: resources and tools for social justice educators
- Challenging gendered scientific truths in my classroom
- The romance of the egg and the sperm
- Postscript – june 2013
- A Teaching Story: Academic Writing and the Silence of Oppression, by Linda Fernsten
- Writer profile
- Len’s words
- Discourse analysis
- What i learned
- Conversation: Contesting Authoritative Discourses in Education, by Letitia Basford, Linda Fernsten, Jane L. Lehr, and Joe Lewis
- Part II. Unearthing Hidden Curriculums: Developmentalism, Race, and Laughter
- Chapter Three: Disposable Young Mothers: Desettling Developmentalism, Unmasking Waste and Value Production in Education, by Erin Dyke and Jana LoBello
- Co-constitution of assigning disposability and value
- The “epidemic” of teen pregnancy
- The bod(ies), the individual, and the “welfare queen”
- Playful work: some pedagogical toys and tools
- Chapter Four: Raced Curriculum: Asian American College Students’ Lives, by Candace J. Chow
- Whiteness on college campuses
- Racial discourses for asian americans
- Traditional practices, cultural clashes
- Moving forward
- A Teaching Story: Unsilencing Laughter in Serious Spaces, by Sarah E. Hansen
- Laughter’s hidden curriculum
- “all indians tak like dis” (class cracks up)
- Pedagogical silence and the perpetuation of oppressive discourses
- Looking at laughter through an alternative lens
- Conversation: Unearthing Hidden Curricula: Standards, Socialization, and Silences, by Candace J. Chow, Erin Dyke, Sarah E. Hansen, and Jana LoBello
- Part III. Learning to Read Critically: From High School to College to Teacher Education
- Chapter Five: Studying Media Representations to Foster Critical Literacy, by Jill Ewing Flynn
- Studying media in methods
- White teachers, urban students
- Studying media representations in the ela classroom
- Conclusion: the importance of media
- Appendix a: media representations of teachers project
- Appendix b: new media/popular literacies project
- More details on the steps
- Chapter Six: Ways of Reading, Ways of Seeing: Social Justice Inquiry in the Literature Classroom, by Mary Beth Hines
- Background on richard
- Ideology, literary pedagogy, and social justice: richard’s views
- Interrogating “student-centered, constructivist“ ideologies
- Enacting social justice through the curriculum
- Ideological critique in the classroom: what counts as knowing literature, culture, and social justice?
- What counts as knowledge: the function of close reading in richard’s class
- A Teaching Story: Anti-Oppressive Pedagogy and Curriculum in Secondary English Methods: Focusing on Critical Literacy, by Jocelyn Anne Glazier
- Why critical literacy?
- Course design
- Practical applications
- Conclusion and limitations
- Conversation: Learning to Read Critically, by Jill Ewing Flynn, Jocelyn Anne Glazier, and Mary Beth Hines
- Part IV. Addressing Resistance: Uncertainties in Learning to Teach
- Chapter Seven: Disrupting “Neutrality” and the New Racism in Teacher Education, by Ann Mogush Mason
- Story one: success cannot be standardized
- Story two: advocacy means taking a stance
- Story three: neutrality discourse is deep and insidious
- The beguiling appeal of neutrality
- Tracing the roots of the neutral ideal
- The course
- The film
- The teacher educator and the new racism
- The new racism in practice
- What this implies for teacher educators
- Beyond the debate
- Chapter Eight: Putting Anti-Oppressive Language Teacher Education in Practice, by Mary Curran
- Language, education, and discrimination
- Anti-oppressive language teacher education in practice
- The course: language and culture
- The book club
- Interactions between my students and the adult esl learners
- The first visit
- Between teaching and learning
- A Teaching Story: Reflections upon Racism and Schooling from Kindergarten to College, by Ann Berlak and Sekani Moyenda
- Ann: a classroom encounter
- Sekani: the boot camp presentation
- Seven minutes of chaos
- From simulation to college classroom confrontation
- Making sense of the encounter: conversations across time and space
- Anger in the classroom
- Anger (moral and defensive)
- Some reflections upon reflection
- Anger in the classroom since the encounter
- The unconscious: ubiquitous and uninvited guest
- In the long run
- Sekani: love letters to the staff at rosa parks
- Love letter to staff 2013
- Conversation: Addressing Resistance: Uncertainties in Learning to Teach, by Ann Berlak, Mary Curran, Ann Mogush Mason, and Sekani Moyenda
- Challenging our students and ourselves
- Discussing the indefensibility of “neutrality”
- Concluding thoughts
- Part V. Complicating Race and Racism in Theory and Practice
- Chapter Nine: Going Against the Grain: Higher Education Practitioners Countering Neoliberalism and Post-Racial Ideology, by Sumun Lakshmi Pendakur
- The contours of the field
- Practitioner as intervention: a review of the literature
- Institutional versus empowerment agents
- Barriers and challenges
- Study background
- Race matters: empowerment agents in action
- Asset orientation
- Maintaining critical consciousness
- Working with students of color in empowering ways
- Chapter Ten: “Khmerican” and Lao American Youths’ Contested Ethnic Identities: Perspectives That Move Teachers Beyond Race, by Phitsamay Sychitkokhong Uy
- Are asians black or white?
- Complexities of identity
- Research background
- Researcher identity
- Teacher roles in identity development
- Choosing ethnic identities
- Either “all smart” or “all in gangs”
- A Teaching Story: It Begins with Muffins for Moms: How Racist Practices Casually Creep into Classrooms, by Mary E. Lee-Nichols
- It begins with muffins for moms
- A multicultural approach to teacher education
- Pilgrims and indians: indicators of what lies within
- Letting go…moving forward
- Conversation: Complicating Race and Racism in Theory and Practice, by Mary E. Lee-Nichols, Sumun Lakshmi Pendakur, and Phitsamay Sychitkokhong Uy
- In closing
- Part VI. Situating Anti-Oppressive Education in Our Times
- Chapter Eleven: Teaching in a Time of War and the Metaphor of Two Worlds, by George Lipsitz
- Chapter Twelve: From Individualism to Interconnectedness: Exploring the Transformational Potential of a Community-Generated Methodology, by Brian D. Lozenski and Gevonee EuGene Ford
- Individualism: the root of all violence
- Community, interconnectedness, loss, and learning
- Loss of interconnectedness and recentering identity in education
- A methodology of transformation from individualism to interconnectedness
- NdCAD uhuru youth scholars
- Two stories of nuys making community connections
- Unpacking the methodology: analysis
- Countering self-doubt
- Demythologizing prevalent narratives of black life
- Distributing educational responsibility
- Conclusion: envisioning interconnected ways of being and learning
- Conversation: Situating Anti-Oppressive Education in Our Times, by George Lipsitz, Brian D. Lozenski, and Gevonee EuGene Ford
- George lipsitz
- Brian lozenski and gevonee ford
- Afterword to the Second Edition: Against Losing Pedagogy, by Kevin K. Kumashiro
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Bic Ngo is Associate Professor of Culture and Teaching in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Minnesota. She examines “culture” and “difference” in the education of immigrant students and the implications for theorizing immigrant identity, culturally relevant pedagogy, and anti-oppressive education. Her research has focused primarily on the educational experiences and perspectives of Lao American high school students and Hmong American high school students, college students, LGBT youth, community leaders, and Wat Tham Krabok Hmong refugee parents. She is a recent recipient of the Scholars Award from the William T. Grant Foundation and the Early Career Award from the Committee on Scholars of Color in Education, American Education Research Association.
Kevin Kumashiro is Dean of the School of Education at the University of San Francisco. He was formerly professor of Asian American Studies and chair of the Department of Educational Policy Studies at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where he also served as primary investigator and director of a $4 million U.S. Department of Education grant-funded initiative to support Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders, and English-language learners in higher education. He is the award-winning author or editor of nine books on education and social justice, including Bad Teacher! How Blaming Teachers Distorts the Bigger Picture. He is the founding director of the Center for Anti-Oppressive Education and the president of the National Association for Multicultural Education.
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Letitia Basford is Assistant Professor in the School of Education at Hamline University. Her teaching and research interests focus on students’ equitable access to education, with a focus on culturally responsive and reform-based pedagogy. Her work has been published in the Review of Research in Education, The Journal of School Choice, and The Journal of Southeast Asian American Education & Advancement.
Ann Berlak has taught in elementary schools and teaching credential programs for 50 years. She is retired from San Francisco State University. Her passion has been the continuing reconstruction of social justice pedagogy in response to ever-changing forms of injustice and possibility. She authored, with Harold Berlak, Dilemmas of Schooling: Teaching and Social Change and, with Sekani Moyenda, Taking It Personally: Racism in the Classroom from Kindergarten to College.
Candace J. Chow is interim Assistant Director of the Intergroup Dialogue Project at Cornell University. She received her Ph.D. in Education from Cornell. She has taught high school English in the South Bronx and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Candace’s interdisciplinary work examines the intersections of race and education and the ways that Asian Americans respond to the discourses that are imposed on them. Her current project focuses on Asian American ← XI | XII → teachers’ understandings of identity and how their identities influence pedagogical decisions.
Mary Curran is Associate Dean of Local-Global Partnerships at the Graduate School of Education, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Her recent work focuses on preparing current and future teachers for global competence. Through funding from the Longview Foundation, she leads the Teaching the World Initiative for New Jersey teacher educators. She directs an annual study-abroad program, Classroom Organization in Yucatán, focusing on culturally responsive classroom management for pre- and in-service teachers who want to learn more about the Mexican educational system. She is committed to anti-oppressive teacher education, partnerships both in the local community and around the world, and preparing language education teachers (and all teachers) to be advocates.
Erin Dyke is a doctoral student in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Minnesota. Her research interests encompass activist, collectivist, and participatory research methodologies; decolonial, feminist, and anti-capitalist pedagogies; and the complex relationship between the education system as a modernist state technology and the forms of study and knowledge production engaged in local social movement-building efforts.
Linda Fernsten is Associate Professor in the Secondary Education Department of Dowling College in New York. Her main research interest is the teaching of writing, not only across the disciplines, but also as writing combines with social justice issues in education. She has published and presented nationally and internationally on a variety topics including writer identity and poststructural theory, the teaching of writing across the curriculum, alternative assessments, and multicultural issues and teaching.
Jill Ewing Flynn taught middle and high school English for 9 years. She is currently Assistant Professor at the University of Delaware, where she teaches undergraduate methods courses and coordinates student teaching for the English Education Program. Her research and teaching interests include critical literacy, multicultural literature, and culturally relevant pedagogy.
Gevonee EuGene Ford is the Founder and Executive Director of Network for the Development of Children of African Descent (NdCAD), a non-profit family education center located in St. Paul, Minnesota, that was established in 1997 and is focused on education and community revitalization in African-descent communities.
Jocelyn Anne Glazier is Associate Professor of Teacher Education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In her research, Jocelyn examines ← XII | XIII → teachers’ enactment of transformational pedagogies in their classrooms, the impact on historically marginalized students in particular, and the influence of teacher education on their pedagogy.
Sarah E. Hansen is Assistant Professor of Education at St. Catherine University. Her research focuses on the experiences of South Asian immigrant youth and the unexpected ways in which humor disrupts and perpetuates inequities that youth encounter. Her work builds on her experiences as a public school teacher.
Mary Beth Hines is Chair of Literacy, Culture, and Language Education at Indiana University. Her areas of interest include literacy and social justice, practitioner inquiry, digital media practices, and identity performance of young adults.
Mary E. Lee-Nichols is Assistant Professor of Teacher Education at the University of Wisconsin-Superior, where her work addresses educational policies and practices that continue to reproduce class structure and social inequalities in classrooms today. Her research interests are focused on white teachers in predominantly white rural communities and their experiences with diversity.
Jane L. Lehr is Associate Professor in Ethnic Studies and Women’s & Gender Studies at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. She is also Faculty Director of the Cal Poly LSAMP Program (NSF HRD-1302873) and Co-Director of the Liberal Arts & Engineering Studies undergraduate major. Her PhD is in Science & Technology Studies and Women’s Studies from Virginia Tech.
Joseph Lewis is Assistant Professor in the School of Education at Hamline University specializing in English Language Arts education. His areas of scholarly interest and writing include cross-cultural language and literacy practices (specifically in Morocco and Tanzania); critical, postcolonial, and postmodern forms of ethnography; and, most recently, the school-to-prison pipeline.
George Lipsitz is Professor of Black Studies and Sociology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His publications include The Fierce Urgency of Now: Improvisation, Rights, and the Ethics of Co-Creation (co-authored with Daniel Fischlin and Ajay Heble), How Racism Takes Place, and The Possessive Investment in Whiteness. Lipsitz serves as President of the Board of Directors of the African American Policy Forum and as a member of the Board of Directors of the National Fair Housing Alliance.
Jana LoBello is a doctoral student in Culture and Teaching within the department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Minnesota. Her research background includes working with adolescent mothers within both formal schooling and community-based organizations. Areas of specialization ← XIII | XIV → include special and elementary education curriculum and instruction. Culturally relevant pedagogies inform both her teaching and learning.
Brian D. Lozenski is a doctoral candidate in the Culture and Teaching program at the University of Minnesota. His research focuses on youth participatory action research situated in African knowledge systems as an educational model that positions youth as agents of societal transformation.
Ann Mogush Mason is Visiting Assistant Professor of Teacher Education at the University of Wisconsin-River Falls, where she teaches courses in the social and cultural foundations of education. Dr. Mason earned her PhD in Curriculum and Instruction from the University of Minnesota. She speaks and writes to varied audiences on topics related to culturally relevant pedagogy, race, and teacher identity.
Sekani Moyenda has been a social justice educator at Rosa Parks Elementary School for 19 years, committed to providing an authentic education to African American students and students of all oppressed groups within the public education school system. She has co-authored (with Ann Berlak) Taking It Personally: Racism in the Classroom from Kindergarten to College and is a contributor to Building Racial and Cultural Competence in the Classroom, edited by Karen Manheim Teel and Jennifer E. Obidah.
Sumun Lakshmi Pendakur, EdD, is Associate Dean for Institutional Diversity at Harvey Mudd College and a fellow at the Asian American and Pacific Islander Research Coalition (ARC). Her work focuses on campus climate, equity, and social justice education. Her research interests include the racial consciousness of Asian American students and counter-hegemonic practices in education.
Phitsamay Sychitkokhong Uy is Assistant Professor in the Leadership in Schooling program at the University of Massachusetts-Lowell and a fellow at the Asian American and Pacific Islander Research Coalition (ARC). Her research focuses on Southeast Asian and immigrant students’ educational experiences and family and community engagement. She utilizes her community organizing background to advocate for educational equity for all students.
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[T]he Race, Culture, Class and Gender Task Group at the U’s College of Education and Human Development recommended that aspiring teachers there must repudiate the notion of “the American Dream” in order to obtain the recommendation for licensure required by the Minnesota Board of Teaching. Instead, teacher candidates must embrace—and be prepared to teach our state’s kids—the task force’s own vision of America as an oppressive hellhole: racist, sexist and homophobic. (Kersten, 2009)
It has been several years since a conservative columnist wrote the above commentary about my work on our college’s Teacher Education Redesign Initiative. The group’s working notes from a brainstorming session were leaked to a conservative watchdog, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), by an individual who opposed redesigning the teacher education program toward anti-oppressive education. As the above excerpt suggests, our attempts to challenge racism, sexism, and homophobia amounted to an anti-patriotic “vision of America as an oppressive hellhole.” Kersten (2009) alleged that our focus on “white privilege,” “institutional racism,” and the “myth of meritocracy” amounted to “indoctrination” and “Orwellian” tactics. Our discussion of the importance of infusing culturally relevant pedagogy into the curriculum was branded as similar to “the modus operandi” of the “reeducation camps of China’s Cultural Revolution.”
While a few of my colleagues and I had worried about the need to move beyond basic anti-oppressive concepts such as white privilege, the myth of meritocracy, and institutional racism, the right-wing media and some local residents ← 1 | 2 → framed the ideas as an audacious assault on U.S. citizens and society. FIRE sent a letter to the president of our university. Fox News spotlighted the story on The O’Reilly Factor (Tabacoff, 2009). My colleagues and I received hate emails and phone calls. In one email I received, a White man asserted: “It is the parent[s’] fault, NOT the teachers or the system.” Parents should “expect their children to be doctors, not the next LeBron James.” He closed the lengthy email with the message: “Finally, tell the parents to start being parents!!!! not birthing machines.”
As I reflect on my work on the redesign initiative and the controversy that ensued, I am reminded that anti-oppressive education is precarious, heartbreaking work, that is perhaps more necessary than ever before. In our supposedly “post-racial” era and “reformed” education, working toward social justice is complicated by “new racism” (Bonilla-Silva, 2009; Cross, 2005) and entrenched resistance to the transformation of social, cultural, and economic inequities. Given this complexity, and the various forms and dimensions of oppression, anti-oppressive education continues to require multiple approaches, nuanced analyses, and pedagogical nimbleness. This new edition contributes to this effort.
As Kevin and I indicated in the first edition, every perspective is partial. Every perspective has strengths as well as weaknesses. Every perspective opens up opportunities for certain kinds of learning and change, and simultaneously forecloses other kinds of learning and change. This book underscores the partiality of various “lenses” to anti-oppressive education. Indeed, the juxtaposition of multiple lenses—from critical, queer, feminist, multicultural, postcolonial, to anti-racist, among others—may provide us with ways to innovate the field of education research and work toward social justice.
Similar to the first volume, this edition spotlights six themes or “lenses” for understanding and analyzing education and its relation to oppression and anti-oppressive transformation. It brings together multiple perspectives on anti-oppressive education from various contexts, including K–12 schools, teacher education programs, postsecondary institutions, and community-based organizations. The book provides an array of practical and theoretical resources for educators to explore and innovate practices to confront and dismantle racism, sexism, classism, heterosexism, and other forms of oppression in education. More than providing simple stories of triumph, this collection illuminates the complexity of and need for work toward anti-oppressive education.
Each of the six parts consists of at least two chapters and a “Conversation.” The conversations uniquely bring together the authors of chapters in each section to collaboratively engage with and respond to each other’s chapters as way to model collective work toward change that builds from different perspectives, experiences, and knowledge. Some of the parts also include “Teaching Stories,” which are chapters that provide insights into the ways in which the theme manifests in teaching and learning practices. ← 2 | 3 →
Notably, this edition boasts ten new chapters as well as new or considerably revised Conversations for each of the six parts. The chapters provide readers with diverse perspectives for considering anti-oppressive education from a range of content areas (e.g., social studies, English language arts) in K–12, postsecondary, and community contexts; student and educator populations (e.g., elementary, secondary, university); social differences (e.g., race, gender, culture); activities (e.g., book club, lesson planning) and research methodology (e.g., case study, self study, participatory action research). Further, this new edition significantly amplifies the perspectives and experiences of youth. For example, new chapters highlight the perspectives and experiences of Southeast Asian, South Asian, and African American youth. Other chapters call attention to the destructive force of educational injustices on the lives of teenage mothers and youth in the school-to-prison pipeline.
Part I, “Contesting Authoritative Discourses in Education,” explores the ways in which dominant discourses in education influence the ways we think about what and how we are supposed to be teaching and learning, and who we are supposed to be as individuals. Joe Lewis and Letitia Basford provide a glimpse of the school-to-prison pipeline by sharing the stories of a single mother and her two sons to disrupt discourses of “discipline” and “at risk.” Jane L. Lehr then examines the ways in which sexual assault discourses “blame the victim” while simultaneously perpetuating discourses of masculinity and femininity that contribute to the production of a “rape culture” on university campuses. Linda Fernsten draws on the experiences of Len, a Haitian American college student, to tell a teaching story about the impact of the “stunted growth” discourse on his identity as a writer.
Part II, “Unearthing Hidden Curriculums: Developmentalism, Race, and Laughter,” examines unofficial curricula inside and outside of school that reinforce the status quo and maintain inequities and bias based on race, gender, class, and other dimensions of difference. In the first chapter, Erin Dyke and Jana LoBello explicate discourses of individual responsibility and teenage motherhood to illustrate the ways in which these discourses measure, categorize, and value/devalue youth women. Next, Candace J. Chow draws on critical race theory to examine the ways in which the hidden curriculum of whiteness obscures and preserves racial discourses that shape the identities of Asian American college students. Last, in her Teaching Story, Sarah E. Hansen troubles dominant understandings of laughter in the classroom. She explores the laughter of South Asian American students during discussions of race, ethnic identity, and gender to re-imagine the role of laughter in anti-oppressive education.
Part III, “Learning to Read Critically: From High School to College to Teacher Education,” suggests that anti-oppressive education within the English language arts requires changing not only what students read, but also how they read. This group of chapters focuses on the specific lens of critical literacy and the discipline of English language arts. Jill Ewing Flynn offers an account of her work ← 3 | 4 → with undergraduate preservice English teachers to examine the production and consumption of media and learn how to incorporate a critical approach to media in class assignments and lesson plans. Mary Beth Hines focuses on her work with a teachers collaborative to examine the ways in which teachers navigate social justice practice in literacy classrooms. Jocelyn Anne Glazier’s chapter follows, with an elaboration of her approach in supporting Master’s degree students’ learning about anti-oppressive and socially just teaching that includes the deconstruction of their curriculum and pedagogical practices.
Part IV, “Addressing Resistance: Uncertainties in Learning to Teach,” examines the tensions and resistances in teacher education courses that focus on inequities in education related to social class, gender, language, culture, and race. Ann Mogush Mason explicates the ways in which her students hold on to discourses of color blindness and neutrality in considerations of race and inequality. Next, Mary Curran reflects on her use of a book club with in- and preservice language teachers (i.e., English as a Second Language) as a pedagogical tool to foster both learning and unlearning about self and others in anti-oppressive pedagogy. Last, Ann Berlak and Sekani Moyenda’s teaching story illuminates responses to personal stories that bring attention to personal and institutional racism.
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- Antiautoritäre Erziehung Soziale Gerechtigkeit Social justice Elementary educator Racism Classism Sexism transformation oppression research methodology youth Anti-oppressive education Heterosexism