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Gender and The Labor Market

Key Facts and The Trends in Equal Employment

by Meltem İnce Yenilmez (Volume editor) Ufuk Bingöl (Volume editor)
Edited Collection 268 Pages

Summary

The woman's role in society has often been undervalued and relegated to the background. Even though opportunities are increasingly made available for women in society, they are still at a great disadvantage. Years of thorough research have revealed how providing increased job opportunities in the labor market is vital for developing a republic's economy. Of course, a country with very little participation of the female population in the labor market will have nothing but a stunted economic and social situation seeing that only half the population are actively contributing to its growth. In the light of the knowledge boom in this modern age, policies have to be made, and strategies are drawn to promote gender equality and provide as many opportunities for women as men in the labor market. This book focuses on the global labor market and how the present and future improvements of gender equality reflect upon it. It also contains the strategies and policies created to combat gender discrimination in the labor market to provide equal opportunities to everybody irrespective of the gender or ethnic affiliations.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the authors
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Preface and Acknowledgments
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Introduction of Gender and the Labor Market: Key Facts and the Trends in Equal Employment (Meltem İnce Yenilmez and Ufuk Bingöl)
  • Section 1 Conceptual Researches on Women in Labor Markets
  • Women and Social Policy: An Evaluation of Labor Economics and Industrial Relations in Turkey in Terms of Postgraduate Theses (Verda Özgüler)
  • Women Education and Women Employment (Yeliz Yeşil)
  • Section 2 Career-Based Researches for Women in Labor Markets
  • Women’s Work and Careers under COVID-19: A Boundary Theory Perspective (Gaye Özçelik)
  • Female Managers in Academia: An Evaluation of the Universities in Turkey (Betül Yılmaz)
  • Section 3 Parental Researches on Women in Labor Markets
  • Parental Time Investment in Children: How Parents’ Education Affects Time Allocation (Zeynep Elitaş)
  • Employment and Childcare Decisions of Women: An Empirical Analysis for Turkey (Didem PEKKURNAZ)
  • Section 4 Entrepreneurship and Women
  • Women’s entrepreneurship and Youth Female Labor Force Participation in Turkey (Berna Balcı İzgi)
  • The Outlook of Home-Based Female Entrepreneurship in Academia in Turkey (Verda Özgüler, Fatma Kocabaş)
  • Section 5 Socioeconomic Issues and Women
  • Effects of Public Spending on Poverty: An Empirical Application (Dilek Murat, Betül Inam)
  • Female Labor Force Participation and Poverty: Evidence from Regions of Turkey (Gülsüm Akarsu, Reyhan CafriHanife Bıdırdı)
  • Financialization and Labor (Hasan Bakır)
  • Employment and Intimate Partner Violence against Women: An Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Violence Prevention Centers (SONIMs) in Turkey (Hakan Ulucan)
  • Section 6 International Theoretical Researches on Gender Issues
  • Regulations and Their Effectiveness to Prevent Gender Discrimination in the European Union Labor Market (Omca Altın)
  • The Impact of Social Norms on Women’s Employment and Gender Policies in the Middle East (Pınar Çuhadar and Behiye Körpe)
  • List of Figures and Graphs
  • List of Tables

cover

Bibliographic Information published by the

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Cover illustration: © Fokusiert/istockphoto.com

ISBN 978-3-631-81791-9 (Print)

© Peter Lang GmbH

Peter Lang – Berlin ∙ Bern ∙ Bruxelles ∙ New York ∙ Oxford ∙ Warszawa ∙ Wien

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About the authors

The Editors
Meltem İnce Yenilmez is an associate professor in the Department of Economics, Yasar University, Turkey. Her research interests range from gender inequality and discrimination policies in labor market to women empowerment and female labor force.

Ufuk Bingöl is an assistant professor at Bandirma Onyedi Eylül University, Turkey. His main interests are qualitative and quantitative data analysis on policy debates on social networks, economics, and social sciences.

About the book

Meltem İnce Yenilmez / Ufuk Bingöl (eds.)

Gender and The Labor Market

The woman’s role in society has often been undervalued and relegated to the background. Even though opportunities are increasingly made available for women in society, they are still at a great disadvantage. Years of thorough research have revealed how providing increased job opportunities in the labor market is vital for developing a republic’s economy. Of course, a country with very little participation of the female population in the labor market will have nothing but a stunted economic and social situation seeing that only half the population are actively contributing to its growth. In the light of the knowledge boom in this modern age, policies have to be made, and strategies are drawn to promote gender equality and provide as many opportunities for women as men in the labor market. This book focuses on the global labor market and how the present and future improvements of gender equality reflect upon it. It also contains the strategies and policies created to combat gender discrimination in the labor market to provide equal opportunities to everybody irrespective of the gender or ethnic affiliations.

This eBook can be cited

This edition of the eBook can be cited. To enable this we have marked the start and end of a page. In cases where a word straddles a page break, the marker is placed inside the word at exactly the same position as in the physical book. This means that occasionally a word might be bifurcated by this marker.

Preface and Acknowledgments

This book covers deep researches from different perspectives and disciplines upon women in labor markets by successful and expert researchers in their field. In this book, different and rigorous analyses of all areas influenced by gender researches were made in order to be one of the new reliable sources about the women studies in labor markets with various dimensions.

This book consists of six parts. After the introduction, in the first section, there are two chapters about qualitative and theoretical researches related to the concept of women in labor markets and gender theory. In the first chapter, a qualitative evaluation was made between Women and Social Policy in terms of postgraduate dissertation theses by Prof. Verda Özgüler. Her aim in this chapter is to gauge how the topic of women and social policy within the discipline of labor economics and industrial relations is evaluated through an analysis of graduate theses. To this end, graduate theses that were written under the Department of Labor Economics and Industrial Relations and obtained from the thesis archive of the Council of Higher Education (CoHE) of Turkey were examined with document and content analysis. Scrutinized data were shown and interpreted with percentage and frequency tables with fruitful results. In second chapter of first section, Assoc. Prof. Yeliz Yeşil studied a multi-perspective theoretical framework of women in education and employment and revealed and valuable suggestions were developed. According to her study, women’s positions in economic, social, cultural and political life should be strengthened. Education of women is important to be successful in tackling poverty and to achieve country development.

The second section of this book is directly related to the women and career concepts of gender studies. In the first chapter of second section, Asst. Prof. Gaye Özçelik scrutinized women’s work and careers under COVID-19 pandemic with a boundary theory perspective. As you know, the global COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on societies not only leading to health crises, but also giving rise to a global economic downturn, accompanied by a sharp increase in unemployment levels that are likely to have long-run repercussions for gender equality regarding work and career outcomes. The pandemic has further challenged existing micro boundaries to the detriment of women. In particular, women have to shuffle between work and housework-related role boundaries in order to fulfill the daily demands of these two distinct, but interconnected domains. Drawing on boundary theory, the aim of her chapter is to illustrate the severity of women’s boundary-crossing activities in the form of role transitions between work and home during a pandemic crisis. In the second chapter, Asst. Prof. Betül Yılmaz evaluates the female manager in academia focused on Turkish universities. In this context, the number of female academics taking part in academia has approached the number of male academics but the number of female academics working in administrative positions has been increasing; it is not yet at the desired level.

The third section of this book aims to show researches related to parental issues of women in labor markets. In the first chapter of this section, Asst. Prof. Zeynep ELİTAŞ describes the effect of parents’ education on time spent with pre-school children aged between 0 and 5. She utilizes 2014–2015 time-use survey data and diaries of daily activities conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) for Turkey. These diaries contain the information about time spent in child’s physical care and educational activities. Parental time equations are estimated separately for each parent in the household on their education levels and other control variables. Results of the analysis show that (i) there are differences in time allocation by the education levels of parents and (ii) the effects of education on parental time allocation differ between mothers and fathers. These differences support that policy making should place additional emphasis on the subject. According to literature, low female labor force participation rate and employment rate in Turkey have been linked to many factors by researchers. One noticeable factor appears to be the childcare burden of women with small children. Turkish women are traditionally the primary care providers of their children. The next best alternative childcare option is getting help from relatives, especially from grandmothers. On the other hand, formal (or institutional care) use in Turkey is not high enough compared to many other countries. Thus, the work-family conflict remains a critical issue for many women in Turkey. Asst. Prof. Didem Pekkurnaz aims to investigate the important socioeconomic and demographic factors related to employment status and childcare choices of Turkish women with small children. For this purpose, she used a nationally representative survey data. Estimation results reveal that low-educated women are less likely to be in the labor force and use formal or paid childcare. A high number of small children are also associated with a lower probability of labor force participation, but it has a positive impact on the use of formal care. It is also observed that women working with social security, working at regularly paid jobs and from high-wealth households have higher probabilities of using paid childcare.

The fourth section of this book contains entrepreneurial researches on women in employment with two chapters. In the first chapter, Assoc. Prof. Berna Balcı İzgi analyzes Women’s entrepreneurship and Youth Female Labor Force Participation in Turkey with econometric model. According to the findings, the increase in female labor force participation increases the female employer ratio after the third period. It is therefore important to encourage women’s participation in paid work. As a conclusion of her research, Syrians had clustered at a certain place for survival and for their safety, but when they began to feel safer in recent years, they began to spread all over the city for approaching their workplace or for improving their quality of life. Prof. Verda Özgüler and Assoc. Prof. Fatma Kocabaş emerge the outlook of home-based female entrepreneurship in academia in Turkey. In their study, articles in academic journals and graduate theses written in Turkey from the perspective of gender roles and from the perspective of labor economics are presented with document analysis from qualitative research methods in which “home-based women entrepreneurship” is addressed.

Details

Pages
268
ISBN (PDF)
9783631841563
ISBN (ePUB)
9783631841570
ISBN (MOBI)
9783631841587
ISBN (Softcover)
9783631817919
Language
English
Publication date
2021 (January)
Published
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2020. 268 pp., 15 fig. b/w, 46 tables.

Biographical notes

Meltem İnce Yenilmez (Volume editor) Ufuk Bingöl (Volume editor)

Meltem I˙nce Yenilmez is an associate professor in the Department of Economics, Yasar University, Turkey. Her research interests range from gender inequality and discrimination policies in labor market to women empowerment and female labor force. Ufuk Bingöl is an assistant professor at Bandırma Onyedi Eylül University, Turkey. His main interests are qualitative and quantitative data analysis on policy debates on social networks, economics, and social sciences.

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Title: Gender and The Labor Market