Cultural Policy for Arts Education

African-European Practises and Perspectives

by Wolfgang Schneider (Volume editor) Yvette Hardie (Volume editor) Emily Akuno (Volume editor) Daniel Gad (Volume editor)
©2022 Edited Collection 322 Pages
Open Access


Arts Education institutions and programs create an excellent framework for personality development: learning knowledge, learning skills and learning life. Their attainment requires education to be a holistic concept of advancement that includes aesthetic practice and involvement with the arts. It challenges them to use their actions to think about the meaning of life, in as much as everyone can use artistic experiences to affirm and interrogate their self-image. The Research Program of the UNESCO Chair in Cultural Policy for the Arts in Development at the University of Hildesheim in Germany brought together experts from the Universities in Dar Es Salam, Kampala, Nairobi, Pretoria, Johannesburg, Casablanca and Tunis and further independent researchers to exchange concepts in Cultural Policy for Arts Education.

Table Of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • About the editors
  • About the book
  • This eBook can be cited
  • Preface by editors
  • Table of Contents
  • Education for the Arts
  • The Africa Cluster. About Another Roadmap for Arts Education (Emma Wolukau-Wanambwa)
  • Arts Education. A global term? (Ernst Wagner)
  • Cultural Policy and Management Curriculum in the South African Education System. Lessons for Good Governance (Mzo Sirayi / Lebogang L. Nawa)
  • Arts Education and its future. A German perspective (Vanessa-Isabelle Reinwand-Weiss)
  • Integrating Arts Education with the creative industries. A case study for sustainable Development (Kennedy C. Chinyowa)
  • Capacity building for cultural policy. Focus on Arts Education (Emily Achieng’ Akuno)
  • Shared work of Civil Society. Arts Education needs Cultural Policy (Wolfgang Schneider)
  • Education through theatre and music
  • Arts Education as Theatre for Young Audiences. A selection of South African perspectives (Yvette Hardie)
  • Moving beyond theatre for development. Using the Arts in Education to encourage bottom-up development (Julius Heinicke)
  • How to develop a love of theatre attendance? An interview with Isa Lange (Mzo Sirayi)
  • Artist as the creative act. Arts Education and the Legends Unite for Change Project (Janine Lewis / Princess Zinzi Mhlongo)
  • ‘Good Governance’ in relation to cultural policy. Music diversity in Tanzania (Damas Mpepo / Mitchel Strumpf)
  • Enculturational discontinuity. Barriers to the development of Arts Education in Tanzania (Kedmon Mapana)
  • Between government structures and non-governmental action. Musical Arts Education in Uganda (Benon Kigozi)
  • Why music? Arts Education as Youth Work in Dar es Salaam (Hildegard Kiel)
  • “The biggest medicine that we all have is the expression of our emotions”. An interview with Emily Achieng’ Akuno (Isa Lange)
  • Arts Education
  • Independent Performing Arts and Arts Education Cultural Governance of artistic practice (Aron Weigl)
  • Arts Education Policy. National interests and the role of civil society (Oluwagbemiga Ogboro-Cole)
  • Art Education. Its impacts on Art Industry in Africa (Kajuju Murori)
  • Cultural policy for the Arts in development
  • Africa is not a country. My open letter to the Cultural Foundation of the Federal Republic of Germany (Safia Dickersbach)
  • Learning and unlearning. Reasons for “Another Roadmap for Arts Education” (Michael Wimmer)
  • Arts Education. A waste of time and taxpayers’ money? (Meriam Bousselmi)
  • Decolonizing Education through the Arts. Towards a pedagogy of Empowerment (Nora Amin)
  • The struggle to develop arts education as curriculum and a driver of cultural policy, in Lesotho (Lineo Segoete)
  • Arts Education as cultural policy. A road map for Africa? (Daniel Gad)
  • Authors
  • Series index

Emma Wolukau-Wanambwa

The Africa Cluster. About Another Roadmap for Arts Education*

The international network Another Roadmap for Arts Education is an association of practitioners and researchers working towards Art Education as an engaged practice in museums, cultural institutions, educational centres and grass-roots organisations in 22 cities on 4 continents. We view Arts Education as deeply embedded in social and political contexts – but also as a possibility to question and transform the social.

The Another Roadmap network involves 22 regional research groups working to critically analyse the Road Map for Arts Education – as presented by UNESCO in Lisbon in 2006 and elaborated in the Seoul Agenda for Arts Education in 2010 – in terms of its history and terminology, subtexts and paradigms, and the application of these policies in different parts of the world. The network contends UNESCO’s recent policy documents reflecting the lack of substantial, nuanced research on art education practices in varying socio-political contexts, and an insufficiently critical engagement with the history and the persistent hegemony of western concepts of art and education within the field.

The chief research aims of the Another Roadmap network are:

  • to analyse current policies and practices of Arts Education (in the context of the increased interest in the role of ‘creativity’ and the UNESCO documents’ other core assumptions);
  • to critically assess the continuing hegemony of a colonial westernised Arts Education;
  • to plot alternatives and develop other paradigms for practice and research in Arts Education.

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About the Another Roadmap School

The Another Roadmap School, launched by the Another Roadmap network in 2014, aims to provide open spaces for trans-regional exchange and learning in Arts Education as an engaged practice committed to social change. Over the course of a 3-year pilot phase (2015–2018), the participating working groups have carried out practice and research projects and contributed to a trans-regional Arts Education ‘glossary’. The outcomes of this work will be shared in the form of ‘learning units’, publications and a travelling exhibition.

The Africa Cluster is a research cluster of the Another Roadmap School solely comprising working groups based on the African continent. It convened for the first time in July 2015 at the Nagenda International Academy of Art & Design (NIAAD) in Namulanda, Uganda, where delegates spent four days presenting their work and planning a joint programme of theoretical and practice-based research into artistic education in their respective locales. A 3-year pilot programme of research activity resulting from this meeting subsequently began in 2016. Initial research findings were disseminated online and at the 2nd International Meeting of the Another Roadmap School, which took place in Rwanda in August 2018. The following interview given by one of our members on the occasion of our inaugural meeting in 2015, should give an introduction on our current work and achievements and our further goals.

How to impact Art Education on the continent

Interview by Dominic Muwanguzi1

Dominic Muwanguzi: In July 2015 you were at the Nagenda International Academy of Art & Design (NIAAD) in Namulanda to launch the Another Roadmap Africa Cluster. What is this project about?

Emma Wolukau-Wanambwa: The Another Roadmap Africa Cluster are a group of scholars and practitioners of artistic and cultural education, working across the African continent, who have come together to pursue a joint programme of research into Arts Education practice in Africa that is critically informed and grounded in historical analysis. The group’s aim is to produce and to share knowledge about and through artistic and cultural education in Africa, and to make this knowledge available both across the continent and worldwide.

The Another Roadmap Africa Cluster will pursue a joint programme of research into Arts Education in Africa, focusing on 4 key areas:

With this programme, the Another Roadmap Africa Cluster aims to make a lasting impact on Arts Education in Africa by creating a vibrant forum for exchange between Africa’s cultural scholars and practitioners and by producing research that is specifically targeted at Africa-based practitioners and policy makers.

D. M.: The idea to decolonize art education seems to me to be overly ambitious, especially in Uganda where one of the local languages, Luganda, was used as a tool of colonialism. Don’t you think this is a futile agenda?

E. W. W.: I agree that it is ambitious to attempt to decolonize artistic education. But the scale of the challenge does not mean that it is not worth the attempt. Far from it: colonial power relations, and, in particular, the subordinate mentality that it, as a system, sought to instil in Africans, continues to impact decisively on relations of power, and on concepts of knowledge and value in ways that are perilously and generationally debilitating for far too many people on this continent.

A clear example of this is the extent to which European languages (admittedly for a complex range of reasons) continue to be widely used as what I once heard the Ghanaian academic Ato Quayson call the ‘languages of power’ in post-independence Africa. Indigenous African languages are regularly marginalized in law, in government, in journalism and in the education system within the very regions in which they originate. They are too rarely taken seriously by those with power as tools for serious discussion and debate. So-called “intelligent” people converse in the languages of former colonizers.

Immigrants settling in Africa from Europe and North America and their descendants can prosper there for generations without ever needing to acquire a proficient grasp of the languages of the people among whom they live. The obverse is decidedly untrue. In fact, it can get worse: last year I met the chairman of an internally displaced persons (IDP) camp on a beach on the shores of Lake Victoria, south of Mukono. He and his fellow fishermen were unfairly evicted from their homes on the islands in the lake ten years ago, and they have been fighting for redress ever since. When we met, the chairman of the camp expressed to me his belief that one of the main reasons that he has struggled to get anyone in the Ugandan government to pay serious attention to the plight of ←17 | 18→his community is because he cannot speak or write English. If this is true, then in this respect, this man is the victim of the colonial mentality of certain contemporary Ugandans.

The use of European languages might make the work and ideas of Africans more readily accessible to some foreigners, but it also limits the participation in discussion and decision-making of people who have not had access to formal European-style education. And ideas of such people should never automatically be dismissed as ignorant or irrelevant. People who don’t speak European languages, people who have had no formal European-style education also produce and preserve important and useful knowledges. Often indigenous knowledges. The dominance of European languages within African discourses can therefore restrict the access to and circulation of rich and valuable ideas, imaginaries, philosophies and world views.

So it’s a slow and difficult task. Part of what the Cameroonian theorist Achille Mbembe describes as ‘the difficult work of freedom’ in postcolonial Africa is, as I see it, to de-centre western cultures, western languages and western epistemologies, and to clear a space in which their indigenous counterparts can be reconstituted as centres of gravity.

However, just because a particular indigenous culture or language group was implicated in colonial rule does not necessarily mean that that language or culture can play no role in emancipation. Some Baganda may have been complicit in British colonialism, but many others fought vehemently against it. Dr Kizito Maria Kasule, the founder of the Nagenda International Academy of Art & Design (NIAAD), which hosted the first meeting of the Another Roadmap School – Africa Cluster, for example, is a Muganda from Masaka. The British sentenced his father to 5 years’ hard labour in the 1940s for his role in anti-colonial struggles in the Uganda Protectorate, an experience from which the father never fully recovered.

D. M.: A project like this obviously encounters many challenges. What are some of those challenges you have already faced?

E. W. W.: The Another Roadmap Africa Cluster has only very recently been constituted. We have faced relatively few challenges to date. So far, all of the institutions and individuals we have invited to participate have responded positively. We were able to raise just enough money to hold our first face-to-face meeting. Besides, a good sized audience of Uganda-based artists, arts practitioners and academics attended the launch event at NIAAD on 25 July. For the most part, our efforts and our ideas have been well received by scholars, practitioners, policy makers and funders with whom we have met. But we have ←18 | 19→not been lulled into a false sense of security. Far from it. The truth is that the real, the difficult work is still ahead of us – that is, doing the research, doing it well, and then persuading our peers of its value.

D. M.: The conversation among many art elites on the continent today is about Pan African ideology in the arts. This can be seen with many workshops and exhibitions staged on the continent like the Art at Work Workshop, Artwork project, Dakar Biennale, the forthcoming Bamako Encounters and Kampala Art Biennale. Is this project part of the debate?

E. W. W.: It largely depends on what you mean by ‘Pan-African ideology’. I personally understand and attempt to practice Pan-Africanism (more or less following Kwame Nkrumah), as an ideological and activist commitment to the solidarity of people of African origin both on the continent and in the diaspora, and to the idea that the unity of people of African origin is essential for Africa’s long-term economic, social, political and cultural progress.

I simply don’t know enough about the initiatives that you reference to be able to speak with any confidence about their Pan-African ‘credentials’. But it’s worth pointing out that just because an event brings Africans together does not necessarily make it Pan-African – strictly speaking. At the same time, and in this day and age, any such initiative nevertheless possesses that radical, emancipatory potential: one of the most serious colonial continuities to afflict post-independence Africa is that so many factors – often external factors – conspire to continue to make it difficult for Africans to meet, to exchange and to join forces. One simple example is that it took longer and cost more money for Ayo Adewunmi to fly from Nigeria to Uganda to attend the first meeting of the Another Roadmap Africa Cluster in July on behalf of the Lagos Working Group than it would have taken him to fly to Europe. To me that is plain wrong.


ISBN (Hardcover)
Open Access
Publication date
2022 (March)
Decolonization Development Africa Civil society Empowerment Capacity building Governance
Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien, 2022. 322 pp., 3 fig. col., 2 tables.

Biographical notes

Wolfgang Schneider (Volume editor) Yvette Hardie (Volume editor) Emily Akuno (Volume editor) Daniel Gad (Volume editor)

Wolfgang Schneider (PhD) was Founding Director of the Department of Cultural Policy at the University of Hildesheim and UNESCO Chair in Cultural Policy for the Arts in Development. He is Chairman of the National Fund for Performing Arts and Honorary President of ASSITEJ. Emily Achieng Akuno is a professor of music at the Technical University of Kenya. She is the editor and a contributing author of Music Education in Africa: Concept, Process and Practice. She is a former president of the International Music Council and current President of the International Society for Music Education as well as chair of the Music Education Research Group – Kenya. Yvette Hardie is the Director of ASSITEJ South Africa, and works as a theatre administrator, director, producer and educator, focusing on theatre for young audiences. She has written national curricula and textbooks for Dramatic/Creative Arts, and has taught widely in secondary and tertiary contexts. She is Honorary President of ASSITEJ. Daniel Gad is a cultural policy researcher (PhD) and managing director of the Hildesheim UNESCO Chair in Cultural Policy for the Arts in Development with a focus on artistic freedom, networking in the arts sector and the transformative power of the arts.


Title: Cultural Policy for Arts Education