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social justice, and loving people. When applied to culture, a Freirean disposition examines culture through problem-posing; it values people’s culture as rich with significance, not unreflectively, but as a product of how people create worlds. Cultural analysis, then, emphasizes questions of value, purpose, and meaning. Bilingual education clearly aligns with these dispositions toward culture. According to Freire (1985), “Language is one of culture’s most immediate, authentic, and concrete expressions” (p. 183). Indeed, “culture” might be the watchword of bilingual

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at the Centre for Australian Indigenous Knowledges at the University of Southern Queensland. His doctorate explored the development of white racial identities and he has published widely in the areas of critical pedagogies, whiteness and identity studies, critical and indigenous research methodologies, and anti-racist education. Denise Bachega , a psychologist, gained a master’s degree in Psychology at Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Brazil. She has a particular interest in research about Paulo Freire’s theories and on the fields of Education and

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idea of conscientização (Freire, 1989), developing a critical consciousness, is inherent in the reflexive and social nature of the PAR process. Freire recognized the role of praxis as action in and reflection on the world in order to change it (Freire, 2009). The critical self-inquiry and reflection processes of PAR and the importance of these for effecting social change has been recognized by practitioners of PAR as drawing on Freire’s work (Fals Borda & Rahman, 1991; Herr & Anderson, 2005; McIntyre, 2008). PAR AND INDIGENOUS METHODOLOGIES Because the research

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they might be embedded in educational practice. Freirean pedagogy highlights the political nature of education and calls unashamedly for education as “humanisation” to be achieved through “critical dialogical praxis” (Freire, 2011). Critical dialogical praxis calls for the exercise of individual agency in a way that respects and in turn enables the exercise of agency in others. This chapter will engage with these Freirean notions in relationship to a vision of music education in the twenty-first century. With specific reference to general ← 503 | 504 → music

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, neoliberalism, and, in Paulo Freire’s words, “reactionary postmodernity.” One of the lessons that the MST has learned from its history in Brazil is that it is not enough to struggle only for land. Education is also a quite important dimension of the MST’s struggles. The MST pedagogy is linked to collective work and the construction of humanist and socialist values. Therefore, this chapter discusses how the MST’s educational principles respond to these three very intertwined, contemporary issues. ← 221 | 222 → “GLOBALIZATIONS” Many scholars from several academic areas all

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to present the theoretical framework that supported my inquiry of cultural recovery. I find inspiration in Freire’s works (1970, 1975, 1985; Freire & Macedo, 1987), I reflect on Foucault’s work (1980, 1994) to understand the discursive methods of colonization that took place in the fragmentation of my colonized mind (Fanon, 1963, 1986), I reflect on the politics of knowledge and I make sense of them in a project that strives to support the reclaiming of my Kabyle voice in the building of an independent postcolonial Kabyle Self. In that regard, I present a

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-maximising entrepreneurs. The indigents, however, are unwelcomed, deemed risky, stopped at the border (e.g., International Monetary Fund [IMF], 2004, p. 21). It is the vagabonds that the state wishes to tame, to domesticate through their young children. They are set “free” to find their way in a global village. I argue Paulo Freire’s concept that “It is not possible to have authority without freedom or vice versa” (1998, p. 99) may open itself to challenge, in a world with too much freedom. Freire himself abhorred the mechanistic “practice of education…[as] a complex of techniques

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, indicate that social-inquiry through project learning reinforces existing social education that masks realities in ways the banking approach does in the Freirean sense. Yet, through seeming acts of inquiry, students re-enact prescribed curricular discourses and sustain established social order, more than merely receiving realities passively from the teacher-depositors. Freire (Shor & Freire, 1987) considers education as “naturally an aesthetic exercise,” that engages educators and learners in “a permanent process of formation” (p. 118). As an aesthetic project, education

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justify their power positions and argue that it was better that they think for and act on behalf of Māori. Freire (1970, p. 112) framed this in the context of dominant elites, stating that the “dominant elites can and do think without the people—although they do not permit themselves the luxury of failing to think about the people in order to know them better and thus dominate them more efficiently.” With this ideology, they were able to present the interests of the more dominant group “as the interests of all groups within society, thereby concealing and denying that

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“mythicizing” (Freire, 2000, p. 168) enacts a brave new world of far-reaching possibilities for willing colluders (or consumers). Universities are able to harness this rhetoric not unlike the way dominant elites in Roman times spoke of the need to give “bread and circus” to the masses (Freire, 2000, p. 141), where English concocts a “bread and circus” formula to impress parents and students, not forgetting the very decision makers themselves. The flipside is that such collusion legitimates the workings of an oppression that bears down on parents, students, and decision