The Art and Science of How People Learn - Revised Edition
Edited By Greg S. Goodman
2. Coming to a Critical Constructivism: Roots and Branches
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Coming to a Critical Constructivism
Roots and Branches
Greg S. Goodman
How do children learn? How can my teaching positively affect the future lives of these young people? What can I do in my classroom to make a contribution to our environmental quality? What are the components of the democratic classroom? As you consider becoming a teacher, you may have already asked yourself some of these questions. If you have, you are not alone. Most pre-service teachers are filled with questions as they consider their future in education.
One of the most important questions to ask concerns the style of teaching you will adopt: what type of pedagogy should I practice? Pedagogy, the philosophic and theoretical foundation for teaching, has been one of the fundamental foci of teachers since Socrates, the ancient Greek philosopher, first questioned Meno about how we obtain knowledge (Sesonske & Fleming, 1965). During the past fifty years, educators have been presented with a wide array of pedagogical possibilities: objectivism, behaviorism, social learning theory, cognitive learning theory, constructivism, and critical constructivism. Today, the pedagogical positions or perspectives recommended by postmodern learning theorists reflect the growth of educators’ knowledge of what makes for both better teaching and improvements in student outcomes or learning. The continuing conversation on teaching and learning is supported by thousands of volumes of scientific research (Wheldall, 2006). As you begin your career in education, you will be...
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