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Gatewatching and News Curation

Journalism, Social Media, and the Public Sphere

Series:

Axel Bruns

Gatewatching and News Curation: Journalism, Social Media, and the Public Sphere documents an emerging news media environment that is characterised by an increasingly networked and social structure. In this environment, professional journalists and non-professional news users alike are increasingly cast in the role of gatewatcher and news curator, and sometimes accept these roles with considerable enthusiasm. A growing part of their everyday activities takes place within the spaces operated by the major social media providers, where platform features outside of their control affect how they can post, find, access, share, curate, and otherwise engage with news, rumours, analysis, comments, opinion, and related forms of information.

If in the current social media environment the majority of users are engaged in sharing news; if the networked structure of these platforms means that users observe and learn from each other’s sharing practices; if these practices result in the potential for widespread serendipitous news discovery; and if such news discovery is now overtaking search engines as the major driver of traffic to news sites—then gatewatching and news curation are no longer practiced only by citizen journalists, and it becomes important to fully understand the typical motivations, practices, and consequences of habitual news sharing through social media platforms.

Professional journalism and news media have yet to fully come to terms with these changes. The first wave of citizen media was normalised into professional journalistic practices—but this book argues that what we are observing in the present context instead is the normalisation of professional journalism into social media.

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Index

A

access, to news, 25, 235, 24041

accuracy, 25355

achievement, 129

acute events, 6970

ad hoc emergence of, 8082

coverage as collaborative activity, 8790

defined, 70

and formation of publics, 332

framing of, 96

hashtags and, 73, 8182

multiperspectivality and, 98

new social media accounts for, 9394

and selective repetition through gatewatching, 8286

social media and, 7378, 8387

and social media normalisation, 18182

See also specific events

ad-blocking, 161, 163, 235

Addison, Joseph, 19

advertising, 13, 235, 261, 263

affect, 31416

See also emotion

Afghanistan, war in, 38

agenda-setting, 165, 166

Ahmad, Ali Nobil, 248, 261

algorithmification of curation processes, 35355

Allan, Stuart, 7576

Alleyne, Mark, 45

altruism, newssharing and, 129130

An, Jisun, 314

analysis, 24

as collaborative activity, 2829

in liveblogs, 27778

analytics. See metrics

analytics, editorial, 227

Anderson, Robert, 294

Andrews, Paul, 48

anger, 311, 314

Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), 162

apps, for news, 163←377 | 378→

Arab Spring, 78, 84, 86, 91, 92, 94, 98, 150, 190

Arnison, Matthew, 21

Artwick, Claudette G., 191

atomisation, of news, 163, 178, 229, 236

Atton, Chris, 21, 56, 58

audience first approach, 24445

audiences

as active contributors, 29

addressing communication from, 184

age of, 235

behaviour, information about, 22427

changing understanding of, 227

engaging with, 2025

expectations of journalists, 245

global, 164

imagined, 138

of liveblogs, 28289, 290, 292

multiple, 192

vs. publics, 331

segmentation of, 154

as users, 227

audiences,

audiences, Austin American-Statesman, 182

Australia, 182

blog wars in, 4445, 51, 57, 247

legal recognition of bloggers in, 48

Australian, The, 44, 51, 161, 178, 250

authorities, niche, 149150

authority, 250, 255, 356

authorship, leap to, 23

awareness, ambient, 12627

awareness, complete, 118

awareness, shared, 118

Awino, Irene, 257

B

Baack, Stefan, 366

Bardoel, Jo, 33, 35, 279

Barlow, John Perry, 37

Barthel, Michael, 125

Bateman, Barry, 92

BBC, 13, 236, 262, 291

Future of News, 257, 258, 366

UGC Hub, 41, 42, 70, 71, 254, 279

Beckett, Charlie, 106, 182, 291, 353, 358, 361

Bell, Emily, 10, 259, 262, 264, 354, 369

Benkler, Yochai, 108

Biafra, Jello, 20

Bild, 161

Bin Laden, Osama, 76, 104

bloggers, 28

hired by mainstream media, 5052

j-bloggers, 50, 56

overlap with mainstream media, 55

press credentials of, 39, 49

recognition of, 39, 48, 49, 56

war bloggers, 38

blogging/blogs

decline in, 55

familiarity with format, 33

First Amendment and, 48

gatewatching and, 33

impact of, 57, 59

normalisation of, 49, 5657

participants in, 5758

platforms for, 28

by professional journalists, 50, 51, 56, 176

use of term, 57

See also liveblogs

blog wars, Australian, 4445, 51, 57, 247

Bosch, Tanja, 201

Boston Marathon bombings, 90

boundary work, 4248, 58, 250

Bourke, Latika, 92, 182

Bowman, Shayne, 33, 40

boyd, danah, 73, 337, 371

Bradshaw, Paul, 202, 205

brands, news, 16365

See also news outlets; news providers

brands, personal, 6, 99, 19295, 251, 259, 364

corporate responses to, 22223

development of journalistic voice and, 19394

as form of self-preservation, 19293←378 | 379→

and journalists’ relation with employers, 24243

personal identity and, 19495

privacy issues, 223

breaking news. See acute events

Brems, Cara, 194

Broersma, Marcel, 4, 5, 10, 196, 197, 244, 356

Bruno, Nicola, 77

Burgess, Jean, 70

Bush, George W., 34, 38

Buzzfeed, 232, 233, 236, 237, 237240, 24142

C

Carlson, Matt, 48

Carvin, Andy, 92, 93, 94, 95, 98, 99, 100, 145, 150, 166, 190, 245, 352

Castells, Manuel, 126, 159, 249, 259, 324

censorship, social media used to circumvent, 78, 82

Chadwick, Andrew, 23, 42, 52, 54, 121, 317

change, fear of, 47

Charman-Anderson, Kevin, 286

Chen, Kuan-Ju, 192

Cherubini, Federica, 225, 226, 227, 232

Chew, Cynthia, 86

China, 255

Christchurch earthquakes, 81, 286

Christensen, Christian, 9

circulation, users’ role in, 37

citizen journalism. See journalism, citizen

citizen journalists. See journalists, citizen

citizen media. See media, citizen

citizens, reporting by, 6970

citizenship, monitory, 95

Clinton, Bill, 34, 35

Clinton, Hillary, 198

clustering, topical, 14649

CNN, 40, 42

Coleman, Stephen, 57

collaboration, 2829

adapting to, 256260

on coverage of acute events, 8790

hashtags and, 87

commentary, 24, 29

activist, 46

by citizen journalists, 58

in liveblogs, 27778, 279

in mainstream media, 5354

in social media, 82

commentary functionality, 3941

criticism of, 21718

outsourcing to social media, 21819

communication, private vs. public, 325

communities of interest, 33233

community coordinator, 184

community-owned news organisations, 1314

competition, 235

competitors, acknowledging, 189

connection choices, 134

content

analytics and, 228230

diversity of, 141

in personal publics, 334

content creation

Buzzfeed’s approach to, 238240, 24142

designed around social filtering processes, 242

control

of flow of information, 78

liveblogs and, 272, 292

of media space, 251

of news coverage, 248

of verification, 255

Conversation, The, 5253

Costeloe, Silvia, 185, 279, 351

Costolo, Dick, 264

Cozma, Raluca, 192

Crabb, Annabel, 92

Crawford, Kate, 70, 116, 117, 337

Crikey, 24, 32, 33

crisis mapping platforms, 299

criticism, newssharing for, 133

crowd-funding, 1314

Curata, 299

curated flows, 356←379 | 380→

curation, 92, 142151, 189192

algorithmification of, 35355

and communities of interest, 333

and formation of publics, 33233

functionality for, 163

gatewatching and, 275

as habitual, 155

by journalists, 19092

news organisations’ move toward, 353

niche authorities and, 149150

of social media content for publication elsewhere, 28082

social recommendations and, 14446

topical clustering, 14649

curation, collective, 147

curation, conventional, 88

curation, social

communities and, 9195

long-term perspective on, 105

news professionals and, 93, 95, 98, 99

curation, social media, 88, 151

curators, 9295, 99, 127

journalists as, 355

relationship with platforms, 26165

curators, focused, 14243, 148

curators, unfocused, 14243, 147

D

Dahlgren, Peter, 9, 57, 58, 311, 312, 314, 317, 334, 342

Daily Telegraph, 222

data, big, 337

Day, Kate, 222

debate, 310, 31416, 359

de Fatima Oliveira, Maria, 89

DeLillo, Don, 81

Delli Carpini, Michael X., 32, 3435, 59

demagoguery, 29495

democracy

crisis in, 15

need for political talk, 372

social media and, 15859

democratic participation, transformation of, 326

democratisation of news, 14041

lack of, 156

need for, 3738

demoticisation

of news, 372

of news engagement, 15659

of newssharing, 14042, 160

demotic turn, in mainstream media, 157, 159

Deuze, Mark, 33, 35, 47, 50, 251, 274, 279, 290, 294, 358, 361

developments, monitoring, 199202

Dewan, Prateek, 74

Digital News Report (2015), 116, 122, 133, 264, 327

Digital News Report (2016), 123, 125, 235, 240, 242, 262, 302

direct messaging, 199

disclosure transparency, 2068, 20910

discussion, 29

discussion functionality, 3941

disintermediation, 104

distribution approaches, 238240

Dorsey, Jack, 10

Drudge, Matt, 24, 32

Drudge Report, 24, 32, 34, 52

Dunlop, Tim, 5152

Durkheim, Émile, 337

Dvorak, John C., 34

E

echo chambers, 8, 141, 201, 2089, 325, 326330

See also filter bubbles

Economist, The, 135, 162

editing, 2021, 22

editorial analytics, 227

editorial control, commercial interests and, 23132

editors, trust of, 242←380 | 381→

Egypt, 86

Ekman, Karin, 204

Elmer, Greg, 144

Eltringham, Matthew, 41, 74, 279

emotion, 8687, 101

See also affect

engagement, with news. See news engagement

Ettema, James, 34

evaluation, as collaborative activity, 2829

extremism, 326

eyewitnessing, secondary, 103

eyewitness reports, 4, 6970

Eysenbach, Gunther, 86

F

Facebook, 8

Instant Articles, 6, 262

institutional pages, 21819

interaction on, 9

News Feed, 239

newsfeed algorithm, 354

prioritisation of news on, 262

response to major acute events on, 10

role of news on, 10

transmission of breaking news on, 9

as world’s front page, 259

See also social media; social media platforms

fact-checking, 35657

feedback

effects of, 209

ignoring, 227

public sharing of, 209

See also commentary

feedback loops, on social media, 130

feeds, shaping of, 159

filter bubbles, 8, 141, 202, 205, 325, 354

See also echo chambers

Financial Times, 244

First Amendment, 48

flows, curated, 8, 356

footage

ability to capture, 7071

ability to share, 71

framing

conventional practices, 97

hashtags and, 8182, 85, 87, 9798

liveblogs and, 276

loss of control over, 318

social media and, 96

social media statements and, 198, 199

social processes, 9798, 100102

transparency and, 207

framing, ambient, 117

framing, networked, 101

free news content, 23436

Friedman, Thomas L., 45, 311, 326

friend repertoires, 338

Fulton, Janet, 48, 245

funding, 1314, 36869

for citizen journalism, 5253

paywalls, 16062, 163, 164

public service media model, 13

Funt, Danny, 164

Future of News (BBC), 257, 258, 366

G

Gans, Herbert, 25, 33, 49, 58, 102, 147, 284, 350

gatekeeping, 50

analytics and, 227

challenges to, 3334, 3536, 78

changes in, 35253

in conventional news outlets, 351

liveblogs and, 296

metrics and, 233

news industry’s loss of power of, 2056

relevance of, 26

scarcity and, 26

significance of, 260

story line-up and, 229

gatekeeping, primary, 2

gatekeeping, second-order, 88←381 | 382→

gatewatchers, internal, 29

gatewatching, 2728, 84, 109

blogs and, 33

challenges to conventional journalism, 3536

choices, 116

and communities of interest, 333

connection choices and, 134

curation and, 275

described, 2

and formation of publics, 33233

as habitual, 155

internal to social media platform, 152

legitimacy of, 351

liveblogs and, 275, 300

as part of journalistic practice, 35153

pivot point between listening and posting, 117

selective repetition through, 8286

Gatewatching: Collaborative Online News Production (Bruns), 3

Gibson, Janine, 287

Gil de Zúñiga, Homero, 371

Gillmor, Dan, 36, 100, 203

Goffman, Erving, 206

Google News, 264

Grafström, Maria, 61, 239

Graham, Todd, 10, 196, 197, 244

Groenhart, Harmen, 289

groupthink, 202, 2089, 325, 328

Gruzd, Anatoliy, 336

Guardian, The, 13, 162, 226, 233, 273, 292, 297, 361, 367

community coordinator, 184

funding of, 368

in-house analytics, 225, 233

and liveblogs, 279, 281, 282, 283, 284, 286, 287, 293, 301

Gubbay, Alex, 183

guidelines for social media use, 22022, 251

Gulyas, Agnes, 181

H

Habermas, Jürgen, 52, 317, 320, 321, 322, 324, 325, 329, 330, 334, 359, 371, 372

Haiti earthquake, 77, 29899

Hallin, Daniel C., 59, 154, 257, 321

Hanitzsch, Thomas, 361

Harder, Raymond A., 198

Harding, James, 362

Harrower, Natalie, 223

hashtags, 73

for acute events, 8182

collaboration and, 87

emergence of, 342

framing and, 8182, 85, 87, 9798

gatewatching processes within, 85

introduction of, 4

lack of usage, 188

transparency and, 194

headlines, 188, 228

Google News as aggregator of, 264

importance of, 164

Hedman, Ulrika, 204, 206, 221

Heinderyckx, François, 88, 230, 352, 353, 355, 356

Heinrich, Ansgard, 98, 249, 277, 334, 364, 366, 368

Helmond, Anne, 225

Heravi, Bahareh Rahmanzadeh, 223

Hermann, Steve, 200

Hermida, Alfred, 72, 84, 89, 93, 104, 106, 118, 119, 126, 154, 166, 179, 202, 255, 260, 264, 271, 272, 290, 360

Hiler, John, 30

history, 105

Hogan, Bernie, 96, 142

Holton, Avery, 128, 130, 135, 192

Horrocks, Peter, 244

Howard, John, 44

Huberman, Bernardo, 338

Huffington, Ariana, 33

Huffington Post, 32, 33, 52, 237, 238, 273←382 | 383→

I

ideals, journalistic, 250, 25156

See also objectivity

identity, 19495, 259

See also brands, personal

identity, performance of, 13738

images, 228

IMC (Independent Media Center), 19, 20, 2122

immediacy, 274

impartiality, 47

imprint, 16365, 178

See also news organisations; news outlets; news providers

Independent Media Center (IMC), 19, 20, 2122

Indymedia, 1922, 24

information

control over quality, 42

decline in original reporting, 53

public availability of, 206

sources of, 48, 253 (See also sources)

information flow, 78, 153

multidirectional, 335

and societal divisions, 154

information overload, 25556

innovation

fear of, 47

in news industry, 350

by public service media, 368

Instapundit, 37

intellectuals, civic, 57, 58

interaction, 2829

interactivity, 250, 251

interpretation, 24

investigative reporting, 36667

Iran, election in, 76, 82

Iraq, war in, 38

iReport, 40, 42

issue publics, 324, 329, 330

J

Jagger, Suzy, 253

Japan, 91, 298

Jarvis, Jeff, 77, 109, 353

j-bloggers, 50, 56

job talk, 2089

journalism, ambient, 11617, 118

journalism, citizen

barriers to access, 28

barriers to entry, 61

criticism of, 34

defining, 13233

distinction from professional journalism, 23

emergence of, 1922

financial sustainability of, 52

impact of, 57, 59

mainstream media’s attacks on, 44, 4546, 47

monitorial role of, 25

normalisation of, 4, 4854

participants in, 5758

relationship with professional journalism, 2, 59, 367

second-tier, 25, 26, 58

tenets of, 1920

traits of, 22

See also journalists, citizen

journalism, day-two, 257

journalism, networked, 106, 364

journalism, professional

boundary work by, 4248, 58

challenges to from social media, 98104

crisis of authority in, 356

distinction from citizen journalism, 23

future of, 210

impact of social media on, 61

as knowledge management, 355

new models for, 6

normalised into social media, 24446, 259, 273, 291

purpose of, 36061

relationship with citizen journalism, 2, 59←383 | 384→

relevance of as distinct practice, 355

requirements for, 43, 45

roles of, 24

as separate from society, 358

See also journalists, professional

journalism, sports, 180, 187, 302

journalistic practices, changes in, 350

journalistic uses of social media

connecting with sources, 19599

curating content, 189192

engaging with audiences, 2025

monitoring developments, 199202

personal branding, 19295

promotion of stories, 18889

journalists, citizen

as commentators, 58

commitment of, 24

lack of gatekeeping role, 27

objectivity and, 23

overlap with mainstream media, 55

See also journalism, citizen

journalists, professional

adoption of social media, 5, 24345

animosity toward social media, 183

blogging by, 50, 51, 56, 176

boundary work by, 4248, 58, 250

competition for jobs, 19293

as curators, 355

differences in social media adoption, 18081

diversification of journalistic roles, 24546

elitism among, 202

emotion and, 101

engagement with peers, 189190

expectations of audiences, 245

loss of power as gatekeepers, 2056

mistrust of, 290

need for active presence on social media, 165

occupational ideology, 35

personal brands. See brands, personal

posts on social media, 12324

relationship with citizen journalists, 4

relationship with news organisations, 245, 364

repositioning role of, 257260

responses to newssharing, 159166

response to social media, 17677

self-understanding of, 210

trust of, 242, 290, 356

use of social media during acute events, 89

workloads of, 176

See also journalism, professional

j-tweeting, 221, 243

Ju, Alice, 234

judgment, rush to, 102

K

Kaplan, Renée, 244

Karlsson, Michael, 205, 207, 255, 274

Katzenbach, Christian, 57, 98

Kaufhold, Kelly, 22

Keane, John, 312, 321, 335, 339, 342

Kenya, 298

Kim, Yeojin, 132

Klinger, Ulrike, 54, 134

Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia, 230

Kovach, Bill, 46

Kuenssberg, Laura, 258

Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam, 74

Kümpel, Anna Sophie, 128

L

language, and social media normalisation, 181

Larsson, Anders Olof, 9

Lasica, J.D., 36, 55, 124

Lasorsa, Dominic L., 251

Lee, Na Yeon, 204

legal protections, for journalists, 48

Lehmann, Janette, 119, 127, 142

Lewinsky, Monica, 34, 35←384 | 385→

Lewis, Paul, 92, 283, 293

Lewis, Seth, 42, 48, 355, 362

liberty, vigilance and, 11

Lim, Jeongsub, 274

linking, deep, 160, 178

linking, in liveblogs, 277, 300

listening, 116, 117, 338

literacy, new media, 179

Liu, Sophia B., 290, 299, 354

liveblogs, 7, 271303

appeal of, 274, 295

audiences of, 28289, 290, 292

and audience’s perception of events, 275

commentary in, 27778, 279

control and, 272, 292

criticism of, 28687

curation platforms/tools, 297300

defined, 272

emergence of format, 273

features of, 272, 27677

framing and, 276

gatekeeping and, 296

gatewatching and, 275, 300

as hybrid, 297

immediacy of, 274

interaction with readers in, 28485

length of, 285

linking in, 277, 300

navigating, 28687

in news ecology, 3014

niches and, 3023

normalisation of journalism into social media and, 273

opinion in, 27778, 28889

platforms for, 300

popularity of, 28788, 300301

for pre-existing communities of interest, 3013

and public journalism, 294

reader contributors, 28384

reliance on correspondents, 293

selection and, 281

significance for journalism as institution, 29193

vs. social news curation, 28082

sockpuppeting operations and, 28384

sources in, 284

transparency and, 288, 289, 295

verification and, 281

livetweeting, 191

logic of the leak, 36566

Loosen, Wiebke, 247

Lotan, Gilad, 93

Lott, Trent, 34

Lowrey, Wilson, 132, 243, 365

M

Malawi, 7778

Mann, Neal, 191

Mare, Admire, 46, 77

Martin, Trayvon, 87

mass self-communication, 159

mass self-publication, 324

Mayne, Stephen, 24, 33

McNair, Brian, 12, 15

media, alternative, 55

See also bloggers; blogging/blogs; journalism, citizen; journalists, citizen

media, citizen

first wave of, 3235, 126

second wave of, 74

social aspects of, 130

See also journalism, citizen; journalists, citizen

media, mainstream

adoption of citizen journalism features, 49

attacks on citizen journalism, 44, 4546, 47

boundary work by, 4248, 58

commentary in, 5354

coverage of War on Terror, 38

demotic turn in, 157, 159

distrust of, 20

impact of alternative media on, 59

impact of social media on, 61←385 | 386→

normalisation of social media and, 179186

participatory opportunities, 29, 3941, 55

propaganda and, 11

relationship with citizen journalism, 4854

sharing of screenshots of, 103

social media content incorporated into, 75, 1023

social media criticism of, 207

UGC in, 4041, 42 (See also user-generated content)

visibility and, 58

See also journalism, professional; journalists, professional; news industry; news organisations; news outlets

media, second tier of, 25

Meikle, Graham, 21

Meraz, Sharon, 82, 84, 101, 117

Messina, Chris, 4, 342

metrics, 22427

and atomisation of news, 237240

content and, 228230

gaming of, 233

gatekeeping and, 227, 233

involving journalists in development of, 232

operationalisation of, 23134

relevance vs. popularity, 229231

use of, 22427

micropayments, 163

misinformation, 88

Mitchell, Chris, 178, 179, 181, 250

mobile devices, 240, 241

Moe, Hallvard, 121

Molyneux, Logan, 192, 209, 242, 245, 257, 296

monitory citizenship, 95

Mozambique, 78, 298

multiperspectivality, 36

Mumbai terrorist attack, 7576, 1023, 109

Murrow, Edward R., 257

Myers, Seth, 149

myHeimat, 53

N

Napoli, Philp M., 227

network effects, 13435

networking, 61

networks, newssharing and, 13437

networks, professional, 2089

Neuman, W. Russell, 103

neutrality, 25253

Newman, Nic, 76, 104, 122, 126, 135, 145, 191, 222, 231, 235, 240, 258, 262, 312

news

access to, 25, 235, 24041

as central to Twitter, 10

co-construction of, 352, 356

diversity of, 314

exposure to, 313, 314

importance of, 350

interest in, 12, 155

as networked practice, 37071

participation in, 156

pathways to, 164

popularity of, 350

as product, 3031, 147, 204, 206

social dimension of, 121

unconstructed nature of, 3132

as unfinished, 3031

news, ambient, 116, 119, 309

news, breaking. See acute events

news, digital, 1213

news, fake, 1011, 239, 262, 354, 35758, 370

news, television, 12

news agenda, 165, 166

news.com.au, 51

news coverage

control of, 248

primary spaces of, 7

secondary spaces of, 7

tertiary spaces of, 8

news discovery, 116, 126, 154, 163, 32728

news engagement, 12327

affect in, 31416

as attraction of social media, 15455←386 | 387→

datasets on, 9

demoticisation of, 15659

effects on news industry, 5

everyday, 119

Facebook and, 120

mobile devices and, 241

and offline formats, 363

randomness of, 12425, 126

rationality in, 31416

as social, 12122

social media and, 9, 120, 123

newsgathering

barriers to, 69

social media preferences in, 187

news industry

crisis in, 12, 15

criticism of social media, 178

economic challenges facing, 17778

effect of engagement practices on, 5

engagement with users, 36162

innovation in, 350

lack of new media literacy in, 179

precarity of, 1213, 1415

reaction to citizen media, 176

reaction to rise of social media, 6

See also journalism, professional; journalists, professional; media, mainstream; news organisations; news outlets; news providers

news judgment

influence on, 190

metrics and, 231

See also news selection; news values

news organisations

adoption of social media, 186205

guidelines for social media use, 22022

loss of control, 264

loss of power as gatekeepers, 2056

organisation of news by, 353

relationship with journalists, 245, 364

responses to personal branding, 22223

trust of, 242

See also news industry; news outlets; news providers

news outlets

adoption of social media, 186205

incentive to normalise social media, 179180

partnering with journalism startups, 36566

partnering with quasi-journalistic sites, 36768

posts on social media, 12324

social media platforms as, 26465

See also news industry; news organisations; news providers

news outlets, conventional

domination of online news, 31213

gatekeeping in, 351

need for, 35051

struggles of, 311

newspapers, 12

See also individual newspapers

news process, 31, 204, 206

backstage vs. frontstage behaviour, 206, 27576, 28284

control over, 6

mutualisation of, 36162

public discussion of, 208

transparency in, 289290

visibility of in liveblogs, 288, 289

news providers

generic, 303

global audiences and, 164

loyalty to, 16365

need for active presence on social media, 165

need for offline formats, 36263

share tools, 131

sharing of news from, 13536, 137 (See also newssharing)

See also news industry; news organisations; news outlets

news selection, 26, 50, 281, 318, 351

newssharing, 5, 119120, 127142

demographics of users, 15253

demoticisation of, 14042, 160

feedback on, 139←387 | 388→

flow of information, 153

and formation of publics, 33233

as form of citizen journalism, 13233

as habitual, 127, 151, 155

industry responses to, 159166

by journalists, 19092

mobile devices and, 241

motivations for, 128131

negative repercussions from, 14142

networks and, 13437

news providers’ responses to, 159166

as performance, 137140

practices of, 13134

and publics, 334

selection of content, 13437

on social media, 12022, 124, 125

as source of news, 152

visibility of, 122

news sites

access restrictions, 16062, 163

deep linking, 160

limiting of shareability, 16162

self-exclusion from public circulation, 162

traffic to, and social media, 12223

See also news outlets; news providers

news snacking, 241

news usage, 246

news values, 90, 201, 253

news values, hybrid, 96

news workers

diversification of roles, 24546

and social curation, 98, 99

See also journalists, professional

newsworthiness, 136, 137

New York Times, 13, 15, 26, 45, 185, 200, 262, 301

New Zealand

earthquakes, 81, 286

legal recognition of bloggers, 48

niches, in news, 3023

Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis, 225, 226, 227, 232, 263, 354

normalisation theory, 244

norms, journalistic, 255

See also ideals, journalistic

Norway, 101

O

objectivity, 23, 35, 4647, 25253

O’Connor, Rory, 76

offline news

need for, 36263

newspapers, 12

relation with online editions, 234

television news, 12

viability of, 235

OhmyNews, 32, 33, 52

Oh Yeon Ho, 33

Oldenburg, Ramon, 318, 320

Olive, Laura, 184

Olmstead, Kenny, 164, 302

Opgenhaffen, Michaël, 188, 220

Ophan, 225, 233

opinion

journalists’ willingness to share, 19394

in liveblogs, 27778, 28889

permissibility of, 251

in social media, 82

trust and, 252

opinion columnists, rebranded as bloggers, 56

organisation ecology theory, 243

P

Panama Papers, 366

Papacharissi, Zizi, 82, 84, 86, 89, 9192, 96, 97, 101, 117, 131, 297, 315, 316, 324, 329, 331, 339

Parmelee, John H., 150, 183, 195, 197, 199, 203, 208, 209, 252, 262, 314

Paterson, Chris, 257

Paulussen, Steve, 198

Pax, Salam, 38←388 | 389→

paywalls, 16062, 163, 164

Peretti, Jonah, 33, 232, 233, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241

performance, newssharing as, 137140

performance indicators, 22427

See also metrics

personal publics. See publics, personal

Pew Research Center, 12, 87, 124, 125, 129, 157, 163, 261, 327

Phillips, Angela, 233

Pickard, Meg, 31, 184

Picone, Ike, 153

Pistorius, Oscar, 92

platforms, social media. See social media platforms

platform socialisation, 132

Platon, Sara, 50

pluralism, subjective, 96

polarisation, 328

political talk, 319

definition of, 152

need for, 372

politics

interest in, 155

participation in, 156

presidential campaigns, 3839

politics of everyday life, 156

populism, 11

Posetti, Julie, 210

Poster, Mark, 317

power, network-making, 259

present, first draft of, 4, 206, 278

presidential campaign, coverage of, 3839

press credentials, of bloggers, 39, 49

Preston, Jennifer, 183, 185

privacy, 325

private sphere, 32425

process, news as, 31, 204, 206

See also news process

product, news as, 3031, 147, 204, 206

production, emphasis on, 20

production, news, 37, 276

See also news process

produsage, 30, 131, 153

produsers, 30, 83

profitability, 236

propaganda, 11, 35758

ProPublica, 367

public debate. See debate

publicising, of news, 2728

publics, 7, 96, 97

vs. audiences, 331

description of, 33031

formation of, 33132

interplay of, 335340

networks as, 33334

publics, individual, 322

publics, issue, 324, 329, 330

publics, personal, 5, 128, 324, 330, 334

publics, social media, 97, 118

public service media, 13, 236, 368

See also BBC

public sphere, 7

adjustment to concept of, 32125

communication and, 325

conceptualising, 317320

configurations of public communication within, 32223

fragmentation of, 311, 312, 322, 325, 326

Habermas’s model of, 321

research on, 34042

structural transformation of, 341, 342

public sphere, political, 372

public spheres, domain-based, 32324, 329

public spherules, 32324, 329

Publish2, 299

publishing, online, 2324

publishing, open, 20

publishing responsibilities, 260

Purcell, Kristen, 121

Q

Quakebook, 298

Quan-Haase, Anabel, 96, 142←389 | 390→

R

Rather, Dan, 34

rationality, in news engagement, 31416

reciprocity, on social media, 130

redundancy, on social media, 8586

Reed, Sada, 180, 187

regulation, 370

reintermediation, 1056

repetition, 8286

reporters, eyewitness, 4, 6970, 77

reporting, annotative, 33

reporting, barriers to, 69

reporting, citizen, 24, 6970

reporting, eyewitness, 77

reporting, investigative, 36667

reporting, live, 19192

reporting, original, 53

research, on public spheres, 34042

retweeting, guidelines for, 220

Reuters, 220

Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, 122, 123, 125, 132, 157

Revers, Matthias, 181, 190, 207, 210, 252, 259, 313

Reynolds, Glenn, 37

Roberts, Laura, 277, 278

Rogstad, Ingrid, 193, 194

Rosen, Jay, 28, 37, 39, 58, 197

Rosenstiel, Tom, 46, 289

Rudd, Kevin, 44

rumours, 88, 90, 255

Rusbridger, Alan, 162, 297, 363, 367, 368

Rushkoff, Douglas, 23, 45

Russell, Adrienne, 258, 356, 365, 367, 369

Russell, Frank Michael, 180, 208

S

scandals, political, 34, 35

Schapals, Aljosha Karim, 273, 277, 278, 285

Scheerlinck, Harald, 188, 220

Schifferes, Steve, 200, 254

Schmidt, Jan-Hinrik, 128, 247, 324, 338

Schudson, Michael, 19, 363

Schultz, Brad, 189, 196

scoops, 18889, 199

Scott, Rick, 199

Scott Trust, 13, 368

search, declining dominance of, 145

Seattle Independent Media Center, 1922

selection, of news, 26, 50, 281, 318

self-worth, 129

Sendai earthquake, 91, 298

Servaes, Jan, 255, 293

shareability, content designed around, 238240, 241

share tools, 131

shareworthiness, 136, 137

sharing, of news. See newssharing

sharing buttons, 131

Sharma, Swati G., 191

Shearer, Elisa, 125

Sheffer, Mary Lou, 189, 196

Shirer, Bill, 257

Shirky, Clay, 57, 88, 247, 282

Singer, Jane B., 42, 49, 50, 56, 77, 272

Sky News, 220

smartphones, 240

Smith, Ben, 237

Smith, Marc A., 336, 338

Smith, Russell, 291

SMO (social media optimisation), 224, 225

social capital, 148

socialisation, on social media, 14849

social media, 8

and barriers of entry to citizen journalism, 61

dangers of reporting on, 75

democracy and, 15859

diversity of communities in, 33536

emergence of, 60

functions of, 6061

incorporation into news coverage, 1023

mediation in, 159

normalisation of, 179186, 24345←390 | 391→

normalisation of journalism into, 24446, 259, 273, 291

promotion of platform providers, 26165

as second-tier corrective, 102

social networking functions of, 61

as source for news, 123

as third spaces, 319320

visibility dynamics on, 144

See also Facebook; social media platforms; Twitter

social media editors, 18384, 185, 200

social media news network, 349

social media optimisation (SMO), 224, 225

social media platforms

interconnections between, 72

journalists’ preferences, 187

as news providers, 26465

in-platform news publishing frameworks, 263

relationship with news curators, 26165

sociality of, 7172

threat of takeover of news industry, 263

See also Facebook; Twitter

social news media network, 8, 372

societal fragmentation, fears of, 329

sockpuppeting, 28384

solidarity, 189

Somaiya, Ravi, 92

sources, 48

connecting with, 19599

direct statements from, 19799

diversity of, 141, 196, 296, 31314, 32728

elitism among, 202

engagement with, 100

hierarchy of, 99100

linking to, by journalists, 190

in liveblogs, 284

from social media, reluctance to rely on, 201

using social media to connect with, 19599

Sparrow, Andrew, 281, 283, 284, 286, 292, 293

specialisation, topical, 367

speech, freedom of, 48

speed

accuracy and, 254, 255

verification and, 106

spiral of silence theory, 139140, 205

sports journalism, 180, 187, 302

Stanoevska-Slabeva, Katarina, 297

statements, social media, 19799, 207

State of the News Media 2016 (Pew Research Center), 12

Stone, Biz, 79, 158

Storify, 192, 29798, 300

storytelling, loss of control over, 272

structural transformation, 320

Strukturwandel, 320, 321

subject, listening, 116

Svensson, Jakob, 54, 134

Symes, John, 288

T

Tackley, Graham, 226

Talking Points Memo, 34

talk radio, decline into demagoguery, 29495

Tandoc Jr., Edson C., 226, 228, 232, 233

Tarleton, John, 20

Tea Party movement, 316

Telegraph.co.uk, 277

Tereszkiewicz, Anna, 274, 276, 278, 283, 284

third place, 31819, 320

third spaces, 319320

Thompson, Mark, 13, 15, 289, 301

Thorson, Kjerstin, 92, 128, 133, 145, 165, 356

Thurman, Neil, 272, 273, 277, 278, 283, 285, 287, 288, 289, 293, 300

Times (London), 253

topical clustering, 14649

training, for social media, 18384, 18586, 200

transparency, 59, 2058, 20910, 289290

critics and, 2067

framing and, 207

groupthink and, 209←391 | 392→

hashtags and, 194

liveblogs and, 288, 289, 295

Trilling, Damian, 128, 135, 136

Trump, Donald, 198, 199, 298

trust, 20, 242, 252, 290, 29293, 356

Tunstall, Jeremy, 13, 365

Turner, Graeme, 157, 159, 294, 295, 364

24-hour news, 99

Twitter, 810, 158

acute events on, 910, 7478

Application Programming Interface (API), 9

as asynchronous awareness system, 118

connections on, 11516

datasets on user engagement, 89

in everyday engagement, 119120

financial stability of, 14

guidelines for journalists, 18586, 188

guidelines for retweeting, 220

instantaneity of, 8889

interaction on, 9

j-tweeting, 221, 243

livetweeting, 191

news engagement and, 9

as newsroom, 259

relevance of, 10

sociality of, 7273

as social network, 149

transmission of breaking news on, 9

tweets as vox-pop statements, 197

user interface, 79

See also social media; social media platforms

Twitter effect, 77

U

UGC (user-generated content). See user-generated content

UGC Hub, 41, 42, 70, 71, 254, 279

United Kingdom, riots in, 93, 95, 191

Urbahn, Keith, 76, 104

user-generated content (UGC), 23

in mainstream media, 4041, 42

UGC Hub, 41, 42, 70, 71, 254, 279

users

audience as, 227

lack of information about, 177

role of in news, 37

Ushahidi, 298

Usher, Nikki, 355

V

values, journalistic, 23

See also ideals, journalistic

Van Noort, Elvira, 78, 99, 100

verification, 8990, 25455, 35657

collaborative, newssharing for, 133

control of, 255

by livebloggers, 281

and speed, 106

Verweij, Peter, 78, 99, 100

vigilance, liberty and, 11

viral distribution, 339

Vis, Farida, 93, 95, 103

visual elements, 228

Visual Revenue, 228

Vos, Tim P., 2, 140

vox-pop statements, tweets as, 197

W

Wall, Melissa, 44, 132

Wallsten, Kevin, 201

Walters, Anna, 272, 283, 287, 288, 289, 293, 300

Warner, Michael, 96, 330, 331

War on Terror, 38

Washington Post, The, 191

Weaver, Matthew, 279, 281, 282

Web 2.0

emergence of, 20, 21

failure of news outlets to realise potential of, 23←392 | 393→

Web sites

for news. See news sites

traffic to, and social media, 12223

Webster, Frank, 372

Weibo, 255

Wells, Chris, 92, 128, 133, 145, 165, 356

Wells, Matt, 282

White Noise (DeLillo), 81

WikiLeaks, 36566

Williams, Bruce A., 32, 3435, 59

Willis, Chris, 33, 40

Windell, Karolina, 239

workloads, of professional journalists, 176

Wright, Scott, 152, 158, 318, 319, 326, 328, 372

Y

Yardi, Sarita, 73, 371

Z

Zimmerman, George, 87

Zubiaga, Arkaitz, 90

Zuckerberg, Randi, 145, 259, 259260←393 | 394→