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Effective Education for All

Implementing Positive Behavior Support in Early Childhood Through High School


Edited By Chun Zhang, Carlos McCray and Su-Je Cho

Effective Education for All deals with cultural-linguistic diversity and how to work in classrooms with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students. It is essential reading for teachers, administrators, parents of CLD students, and policy makers if we are to continue to see progress and success from our graduates. This book is both practical and helpful for educators and their schools in offering Positive Behavior Support (PBS), illustrating key steps in understanding the problem and research on cultural-linguistic diversity. The authors offer resources to help educators and their families to understand the failures and successes with these students within the context of their particular schools and communities. What works with one group and age cohort may change as students develop within local and regional contexts.
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3. Creating a Culturally Responsive School Climate with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports



School violence is a national concern for schools and communities across the United States (Kondrasuk, Greene, Waggoner, Edwards, & Nayak-Rhodes, 2005). A report by National Center for Educational Statistics indicated that students ages 12 to 18 were victims of approximately 583,000 violent crimes in 2004 (Dinkes, Cataldi, Kena, & Baum, 2006). School-wide violence can take several forms including bullying, intimidation, gang activity, locker theft, weapon use, assault, and other behaviors that often result in a person being victimized (Espelage & Horne, 2008). These behaviors are usually targeted against peers. However, similar forms of student violence are directed against educators. Such violence ranges from disrespectful behavior to intimidation, verbal threats or gestures, theft, property damage, and in some cases, physical assault (American Psychological Association, n.d.). Among these acts, student verbal aggression against teachers was most frequently reported by teachers in several studies (e.g., Mooij, 2011).

Students exposed to violent behaviors or victims of such behaviors are likely to experience a range of negative social-emotional, academic, and developmental outcomes. Dempsey and Storch (2008) found that students being victimized by aggressive peers in childhood have a tendency to develop social anxiety and depression in adulthood. Similarly, in investigating the relationship between frequent involvement in bullying and aggressive impulsivity and perceptions of school climate using a large-scale data of 24,345 elementary-, ← 45 | 46 → middle-, and high-school students. O’Brennan, Bradshaw, and Sawyer (2009) found that bully/victims...

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