Implementing Positive Behavior Support in Early Childhood Through High School
Edited By Chun Zhang, Carlos McCray and Su-Je Cho
3. Creating a Culturally Responsive School Climate with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
SU-JE CHO, JI-RYUN KIM, KWANG-SUN CHO BLAIR, AND CARLOS R. MCCRAY
School violence is a national concern for schools and communities across the United States (Kondrasuk, Greene, Waggoner, Edwards, & Nayak-Rhodes, 2005). A report by National Center for Educational Statistics indicated that students ages 12 to 18 were victims of approximately 583,000 violent crimes in 2004 (Dinkes, Cataldi, Kena, & Baum, 2006). School-wide violence can take several forms including bullying, intimidation, gang activity, locker theft, weapon use, assault, and other behaviors that often result in a person being victimized (Espelage & Horne, 2008). These behaviors are usually targeted against peers. However, similar forms of student violence are directed against educators. Such violence ranges from disrespectful behavior to intimidation, verbal threats or gestures, theft, property damage, and in some cases, physical assault (American Psychological Association, n.d.). Among these acts, student verbal aggression against teachers was most frequently reported by teachers in several studies (e.g., Mooij, 2011).
Students exposed to violent behaviors or victims of such behaviors are likely to experience a range of negative social-emotional, academic, and developmental outcomes. Dempsey and Storch (2008) found that students being victimized by aggressive peers in childhood have a tendency to develop social anxiety and depression in adulthood. Similarly, in investigating the relationship between frequent involvement in bullying and aggressive impulsivity and perceptions of school climate using a large-scale data of 24,345 elementary-, ← 45 | 46 → middle-, and high-school students. O’Brennan, Bradshaw, and Sawyer (2009) found that bully/victims...
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